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Managing Artisanal Fisheries

Managing Artisanal Fisheries

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Managing Artisanal Fisheries

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  1. Managing Artisanal Fisheries Sebastian Mathew International Collective in Support of Fishworkers (ICSF)

  2. Importance of artisanal fisheries • 45% of global fish production is estimated to originate from artisanal fisheries (FAO) • Employs the largest number, more than 90%, of workers in the fisheries sector, worldwide • An important source of employment, income, food security and foreign exchange in many developing countries

  3. Artisanal fisheries in WTO Negotiating Group on Rules • Artisanal fisheries is not the focus of negotiation on fisheries subsidies (United States) • What is the meaning of “artisanal”, does it include small-scale coastal fisheries? (Japan) • Developing countries have artisanal fishers in the EEZ and territorial waters for the domestic and the export market, that it is central to the subsistence and “monetized livelihood” of coastal populations in the developing world (Group of Small Vulnerable Coastal States)

  4. 1995 FAO Code of Conduct for Responsible Fisheries • Article 6.18: • Protect the rights of artisanal and small-scale fishers and fishworkers to a secure and just livelihood • Preferential access to traditional fishing grounds and resources

  5. What is artisanal fisheries? • Artisanal fisheries include a range of fishing activities targeting anything from sedentary molluscs in littoral waters to highly migratory tuna stocks in distant waters • It may be an activity that is resident or migrant, occasional, seasonal, part-time or full-time • Size of fishing craft could range from 3 m dugout canoes in Madagascar to 20 m steel canoes in India • Highly individualized to labour-intensive fishing operations

  6. Why should artisanal fisheries be managed? • Changes in fishing practices as a result of use of nylon as gear material and use of high quality hooks; use of outboard motors for propulsion; use of fibre-reinforced plastic (FRP) and steel for construction of fishing vessels; use of ice-boxes; use of modern navigational aids such as GPS receivers; etc • Increase in catch capacity; use of large quantities of gear, use of smaller mesh sizes • Dramatic growth in fishing capacity and fishing effort leading to overfishing pressures and fishing conflicts

  7. Important considerations in fisheries management • Conservation of fisheries resources • Protection of fish habitats • Allocation of fisheries resources to fishers

  8. Managing artisanal fisheries • In multi-species, multi-gear, multi-cultural fisheries what measures could be considered to manage artisanal, small-scale fisheries? • Input and output control, technical measures, time-area closures? • Matching fishing capacity to fisheries resources (data requirements)? • Quota management regimes? • Difficult to implement in several artisanal fisheries, because of too many fishing vessels and too many landing centres • Limited entry regimes? • Cooperation of fishers very important to implement such regimes; need to develop fishers’ organizations

  9. Managing artisanal fisheries 2 • Community-based (traditional, co-ops, assns, trade unions, etc) and co-management regimes for greater legitimacy and ownership • Importance of fostering dialogue between artisanal fishers and fisheries authorities to arrive at short- and long-term goals of fisheries management • Significance of institution-building to enable devolution of fisheries management (subsidiarity principle)

  10. Managing artisanal fisheries 3 • In particular, adapting traditional community-based fisheries management initiatives wherever they exist to build upon their strengths and to address their weaknesses • Salient aspect of traditional initiatives: clearly defined rules of exclusion • Weakness: community concern is mainly about distributional justice and mitigation of conflicts, not necessarily conservation/habitat protection

  11. Conclusion • Artisanal fisheries is very significant, in many developing countries • Managing artisanal fisheries in the light of new technological developments and new marketing opportunities is important • There is need to consider a variety of management measures in consultation with fishers before adopting the right combination for each fishery • Most ideal institutional framework for fisheries management are community-based and co-management regimes

  12. Thank you