Welding Safety John Newquist
First Incident • Byron Nuclear • 1983 • Hundreds of construction workers • Welding at several levels so fire tarps everywhere. • What danger is there with tarps and floor openings?
Valve cap protection 1926.350 (a)(1) Valve protection caps shall be in place and secured. Valve cap 1926.350 (a)(5) Valve protection caps shall not be used for lifting cylinders from one vertical position to another. 1926.350(a)(6) Unless cylinders are firmly secured on a special carrier intended for this purpose, regulators shall be removed and valve protection caps put in place before cylinders are moved.
1926.350(a)(4) Transporting of cylinders When cylinders are transported by powered vehicles, they shall be secured in a vertical position.
1926.350(a)(7) A suitable cylinder truck, chain, or other steadying device shall be used to keep cylinders from being knocked over while in use.
Valve 1926.350(a)(8) Cylinder valve When work is finished, when cylinders are empty, or when cylinders are moved at any time, the cylinder valve shall be closed. 1926.350(a)(9) Upright position Compressed gas cylinders shall be secured in an upright position at all times except, if necessary, for short periods of time while cylinders are actually being hoisted or carried.
1926.350(a)(10) Oxygen cylinders in storageshall be separated from fuel-gas cylinders or combustible materials(especially oil or grease), a minimum distance of 20 feet (6.1 m) or by a noncombustible barrier at least 5 feet (1.5 m) high having a fire-resistance rating of at least one-half hour. 1926.350(a)(11) Inside of buildings, cylinders shall be stored in a well-protected, well-ventilated, dry location, at least 20 feet (6.1 m) from highly combustible materials such as oil or excelsior.
1926.350 (d)(1) Before a regulator to a cylinder valve is connected, the valve shall be opened slightly and closed immediately. (This action is generally termed "cracking" and is intended to clear the valve of dust or dirt that might otherwise enter the regulator.) The person cracking the valve shall stand to one side of the outlet, not in front of it.
1926.(d)(4) Removal of regulator Before a regulator is removed from a cylinder valve, the cylinder valve shall always be closed and the gas released from the regulator.
1926.350 (f)(1) Hose colors Fuel gas hose and oxygen hose shall be easily distinguishable from each other. Oxygen and fuel gas hoses shall not be interchangeable.
1926.350 (f)(2) Taped sections When parallel sections of oxygen and fuel gas hose are taped together, not more than 4 inches out of 12 inches shall be covered by tape. 4” 12”
1926.350 (f)(3) Inspections All hose in use, carrying acetylene, oxygen, natural or manufactured fuel gas, or any gas or substance which may ignite or enter into combustion, or be in any way harmful to employees, shall be inspected at the beginning of each working shift. Defective hose shall be removed from service. cracking
1926.350 (f)(5) Hose couplings shall be of the type that cannot be unlocked or disconnected by means of a straight pull without rotary motion.
1926.350 (g)(1) - Torches. Clogged torch tip openings shall be cleaned with suitable cleaning wires, drills, or other devices designed for such purpose. 1926.350(g)(2) Torches in use shall be inspected at the beginning of each working shift for leaking shutoff valves, hose couplings, and tip connections. Defective torches shall not be used. 1926.350 (g)(3) - Lighters Torches shall be lighted by friction lighters or other approved devices, and not by matches or from hot work. Striker
1926.351(b)(2) • Only cable free from repair or splices for a minimum distance of 10 feet from the cable end to which the electrode holder is connected shall be used…
1926.351(e) • Shielding. • Whenever practicable, all arc welding and cutting operations shall be shielded by noncombustible or flameproof screens which will protect employees and other persons working in the vicinity from the direct rays of the arc.
Subpart J - Welding & Cutting(1926.350 -354) Cylinders secured upright Oxygen cylinder storage Cables needing repair Splices within 10 feet of holder No Shielding from welding operations
Chain Cylinders are not protected from falling. Note that the Chain is not secured across. Is the carrier safe? Compressed Gas Cylinder Safety
Electrical Cord 1. Cylinder not secured 2. Cylinder should be stored 3. Subject to damage. 4. Electrical cord draped over. Compressed Gas Cylinder Safety
Electrical arc damage Cylinder is damaged. Should be taken out of service immediately! Compressed Gas Cylinder Safety
Cylinder should be in storage protected from damage and not laying on the ground regardless if it is full or empty Compressed Gas Cylinder Safety
1. Inadequate housekeeping 2. Valve caps should be installed. Compressed Gas Cylinder Safety
Acetylene Cylinder • Unsecured acetylene cylinder 2. Exposed to damage Compressed Gas Cylinder Safety
Unsecured cylinders Compressed Gas Cylinder Safety
Regulator left pressurized after use Compressed Gas Cylinder Safety
Improper Storage Compressed Gas Cylinder Safety
Fatalities • On December 13, 2011, Employee #1 and two coworkers were welding from a properly erected scaffold system inside a one million gallon steel storage tank. • For some reason, Employee #1 removed his harness and fell 55 ft through the scaffold railings to the base of the steel tank. • Employee #1 was killed.
Burn Incident • On February 2, 2011, Employee #1 was welding overhead. • A piece of molten slag from the weld arc went down in-between the four layers of clothing he was wearing and ignited the inner clothing layers. • Employee #1 suffered burns over approximately eighteen percent of total body surface area and was off work for at least four months.
Fatalities • September 2003 - The employees were arc welding the guardrail system of a solid waste storage tank (40' above the ground) when an explosion occurred. • What precautions should be taken?
Fatalities • February 2003 - An employee was tig welding on an open pipe and a combustible liquid oil flushed from the pipe and covered his body. The oil was ignited by the welder and the employee suffered burns to approximately 95% of his body. • What Precautions here? Pipes in a chemical plant.
Fatalities • July 2003 - the victim was arc welding to install metal sub- flooring on a balcony. The welding cables of the arc welder had frayed cables and improper repairs within 10 feet of the electrode end holders. The victim came into contact with the exposed wires on the welding cables and was electrocuted. • What could have been done differently?
Fatalities • November 2002 - Employee #1 had cut a hole in the bottom cone of silo #341 with an Oxygen and Acetylene torch and MIG welded the bottom half of a side chute onto the opening. The employee stopped welding in order to torch cut a notch out of the top of the newly attached side chute when residual dust from inside the silo ignited causing a flash fire. • What should have done? Cone Silo on its side.
Fatalities • January 2001 - Welder was Tungsten Inert Gas Welding in a confined space at a refinery and suffered Argon asphyxiation. • Several Argon deaths due to heavy nature of gas. Argon welding
Fatalities • June – 2000 Employee was welding Underneath A Back Hoe and It Ran Over Him. • What would you have done differently? Backhoe on incline.
Fatalities • 1987 – Wheaton • Oxy-acetylene hose caught on fire when cut by welder. Tanks exploded as welder went to shut off flow. • What would you do if these hose got on fire?
Fires • 1992 – Food Plant under construction. Welder has sparks ignite area between walls causing $12M loss. What precautions would be required for sparks?
Setup Accident • August 2003 – going to weld a 7 foot long 20 inch pipe through a wall. When they moved the pipe, it fell off the roller stand and the welder's finger got caught between the outer surface of the pipe and the edge of the concrete wall penetration. • Load must be secured. Typical Roller Stand
Fall Hazard • Falls through roof holes and fall off roofs are most common hazards. • What should be done for this fall hazard? List two methods.
Wet Condition • Avoid working in wet conditions • Water conducts electricity • Insulate yourself from the work and the ground by standing on a dry rubber mat or similar non-flammable material. • Ground Welder • Build shelter for welder
Personal Protective Equipment • Most common problem is the welder has protection and the helper does not.
Lead Cutting or welding painted surfaces that contain lead can result in lead overexposure in 5 minutes.
Hex Chrome • A major source of worker exposure to Cr(VI) occurs during "hot work" such as welding on stainless steel and other alloy steels containing chromium metal. Cancers targets the respiratory system, kidneys, liver, skin and eyes
What is in welding fume? • Metals such as.. • Aluminum, Antimony, Arsenic, Beryllium, Cadmium, Chromium, Cobalt, Copper, Iron, Lead, Manganese, Molybdenum, Nickel, Silver, Tin, Titanium, Vanadium, Zinc. Position fume hoods so to not pass through your breathing zone
Heat • 2013 Year of Dehydration • Heat Fatal in Chicago in June 2013 on first day of work