distributed query n.
Skip this Video
Loading SlideShow in 5 Seconds..
Distributed Query PowerPoint Presentation
Download Presentation
Distributed Query

Distributed Query

112 Vues Download Presentation
Télécharger la présentation

Distributed Query

- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - E N D - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
Presentation Transcript

  1. Distributed Query Conor Cunningham Principal Architect SQL Server Engineering Team

  2. Who Am I? • I work on the SQL Server Core Engine • Specialize in Query Processing/Optimization • 14+ years at Microsoft • 3rd year speaking at SQLBits – 3 talks this year • I love hearing about how you use the product • I take that back to the Engineering team so we can work on the next versions of SQL Server/Azure

  3. Talk Agenda • Problem Statement • (Quick) Summary of SQL Server’s Optimizer • DQ Optimization Approach • Under-the-hood Examples • Distributed Partitioned Views • Common Troubleshooting Techniques

  4. Problem Statement • Data Living on Different Servers? • Data Living on non-SQL Server? • Need to Manage Many Servers? • Want to move data from one server to another without dealing with SSIS? • … • There are many reasons to use Distributed Query – it fills many holes

  5. Optimizer Overview • I gave a SQLBits talk on this 2 years ago • You can watch that talk on • Key Concepts in the Optimizer: • Operators shaped into trees • Trees and Sub-Trees have Properties • Rules transform sub-trees into new sub-trees • Equivalent sub-trees get stored in a management structure called the “Memo” • The sequence of rules and heuristics is applied to try to generate good query plans efficiently

  6. DQ Optimization Goal • DQ tries to make remote tables appear to be local (so you don’t care that they are remote) Server 1 (Local) Server 2 (Remote) SELECT SUM(col1), col2 FROM <remotetbl> WHERE col3 > 10000 GROUP BY col2 SELECT SUM(col1), col2 FROM localtbl WHERE col3 > 10000 GROUP BY col2 Expectation: Push operations to remote server • That works for the basic cases • What about more complex cases?

  7. Next Example – Should it Remote? • Let’s try a cross product: Server 1 (Local) Server 2 (Remote) SELECT * FROM <remotetbl> as t1, <remotetbl> as t2 Should it remote?

  8. How About This One? • Join Small Local Table to Large Remote Table Server 1 (Local) • Pulling a big table over the network is expensive • It would be great if we could get that join condition to remote… SELECT * FROM smalllocal as L, <bigremote> as R ON L.col1=R.col1

  9. DQ Optimization Differences • Data is remote, expensive to move (network) • Often the desired behavior is pretty basic – remote if you can do so • Sweet spots for several optimizations changes • We force several optimizations we use only for “expensive” local queries (example: pushing local group by to the remote source)

  10. One Layer Deeper… • SQL Server’s QP acts like a SQL Server client • Based on OLEDB • It can talk to most OLEDB providers, not just SQL Server • So you can pull data from Oracle or DB2 or Excel or Text Files or even write your own provider • Each phase of query compilation and execution are overridden to use remote data instead

  11. Query Binding • We load metadata from OLEDB schema rowsets instead of our own system tables • DBSCHEMA_TABLES, _COLUMNS, _INDEXES, … • Metadata is cached locally to avoid round trips • OLEDB Types converted to closest SQL type • Lossy conversions possible for non-SQL Server • We ask for the output schema for views and sprocs by compiling them on the remote side • If we do, we try to cache this connection for execution

  12. Optimization • General Goal: Remote Large Subtrees • We do use statistics, indexes, and some constraint information from remote sources • We can work against SQL providers, Index providers, or simple table providers • We start with a “get all data from remote source” plan and try to find better plans • Startup and per-row costs for remote sources are expensive • We also tweak lots and lots of rules to run differently for DQ (no trivial plan, different join reordering, aggressive local-global agg pushdown) • Finally, we generate lots of subtrees that remote and pick the “cheapest” one per our cost model

  13. Optimization Search GB(b,c) SUM(C.d) GB(b,c) SUM(C.d) GB(b,c) SUM(C.d) Join Join Join GB(c) SUM(C.d) Join Join B B RmtC Join RmtA B RmtA RmtC GB(b,c) SUM(C.d) RmtC RmtA GB(a,c) SUM(C.d) GB(a,c) SUM(C.d) Join Join Join Join B B B RmtA RmtC

  14. Execution • Mostly similar to regular OLEDB clients • Open DB, SetCommandText, Execute, Read Rows • Some parts are more unique • Compile and Execute are 2 separate steps • We have to validate the plan is still valid • So we compare the schema compile vs. execute (and recompile if needed) • We find many provider bugs nobody else does here  • Note: we can remote lock hints in remote queries

  15. Reading DQ Execution Plans • ICommand::Execute/IOpenRowset opens each scan initially • We retrieve rows in batches (50-100) when possible • Each new NLJ scan of inner side calls IRowset::RestartPosition • We stop reading when we have satisfied the query requirements (only do complete scans when necessary) 1 2 3 4

  16. (Distributed) Transactions • Transactions ensure correctness • Distributed Transactions require multiple databases to either commit or abort together • Microsoft ships a component called MSDTCthat: • Provides a common service for dist. Transactions • Works for non-database things (queues, etc.) • Brokers between transaction protocols of different vendors • DQ uses this component • Not all queries require transactions, and DQ optimizes performance by only starting a DTC when necessary • Configuring MSDTC is done on the Domain Controller by the Domain Administrator…

  17. Double-Hop Authentication • Use Integrated Auth? Get Errors through DQ? • This scenario happens in different places • User->IIS->SQL Server • User->SQL-(DQ)->SQL • This is known as the “double hop problem” • Don’t be afraid! It is possible to flow credentials and use your domain identities – talk to your domain administrator to define your SPN and permissions! Links to read:

  18. Distributed Partitioned Views • DPVs were an early scale-out model in DQ • You split a table by ranges and put each on its own server (check constraints for the ranges) • A UNION ALL view tied them together • DQ then did various optimizations including: • Pruning of unneeded partitions • Startup predicates to do dynamic pruning • Downsides: • Compilation time was high • Commands not done in parallel to each server • This feature influenced our partitioned tables design

  19. Troubleshooting • Biggest problem in DQ is “it didn’t remote” • Various reasons: • Some function isn’t supported by DQ • Exotic data types (XML, CLR types) • Correctness issues – most date issues only trust the local clock (otherwise results can differ when you remote) • Sometimes the costing model will be close on 2+ plan choices and a plan will “stop remoting” (switch plans) to one that we think is similar in cost but is not • Workarounds: In most cases, OPENQUERY() can be used to specify the exact text you wish to remote. Think of this as plan forcing for Distributed Query • Also note: • SQL Server – SQL Server remoting is much better than SQL-Other DMBS vendors (our algebra and theirs does not always align)

  20. Conclusion • Thank you for your attention • Questions?