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IEL2001 Introduction to Language: ‘ ’Ch. 8 Syntax ’’

IEL2001 Introduction to Language: ‘ ’Ch. 8 Syntax ’’. Group Members: 1. Lao Antonino 2. Mitsunobu Narita 3. Yeraldo Arana Freita 4. Dorothy Scott 5. Athitiya Hatthiya. Introduction to Language. Objectives Overview : Explain the Syntax background

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IEL2001 Introduction to Language: ‘ ’Ch. 8 Syntax ’’

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  1. IEL2001 Introduction to Language: • ‘’Ch. 8 Syntax’’

  2. Group Members: • 1. Lao Antonino • 2. Mitsunobu Narita • 3. Yeraldo Arana Freita • 4. Dorothy Scott • 5. AthitiyaHatthiya Introduction to Language

  3. Objectives Overview: • Explain the Syntax background • Analyze Syntactic structure and the rule system used to produce sentences

  4. Table of Contents: • 1. Syntax Overview • 2. Structural ambiguity • 3. Tree diagram • 4. Symbols used in syntactic analysis • 5. Phrase structure rules • 6. Lexical rules • 7. Movement rules • 8. Recursion • 9. Complement phrases • 10. Syntax Research topics Introduction to Language

  5. Syntax Overview • SyntaxIn linguistics, syntax (The word originates from the Greek words συν (syn), meaning "co-" or "together," and τάξις (táxis), meaning "sequence, order, or arrangement.") is the study of the rules, or "patterned relations," that govern the way words combine to form phrases and phrases combine to form sentences. • Grammar: • Phonology • Morphology • Syntax • Semantics • Pragmatics (Andrew Carnie, 2007) Introduction to Language

  6. Syntax Overview Cont’d… • Generality • - All language have syntax, although they are not the same. • - In no language is word order completely free. • E.g. • The workers painted a house. • *House painted workers a the. • - Words are combined in specific and restrictive ways. • Universality • - Grammars are alike in fundamental ways • - Words are not just strung together but grouped into constituents. • E.g. C VP • 3. The worker painted the house. • C V DO • 4. The worker paintedthe house. • - All languages assign such structure to their sentences. LEGEND: *Ungrammatical Sentence C Constituent VP Verb Phrase V Verb DO Direct Object (Andrew Carnie, 2007) Introduction to Language

  7. Syntax Overview Cont’d… • Creativity • - Speakers are able to combine words in novel ways. • Inaccessibility • - Grammars are not directly accessible to conscious introspection. (Andrew Carnie, 2007) Introspection – Nocturnal Reflections Introduction to Language

  8. Syntax Overview Cont’d… • Language Universals and Variations • - How languages are alike in their syntactic structure. • - How they differ. • Possible and impossible syntactic constructions. • They are eating eggs and chips. • What are they eating? • *What are they eating eggs and? • Universal Grammar • - Innate Language Faculty. • - Rules and principles that pertain to all human languages; hard-wired into human brains. (Andrew Carnie, 2007) Introduction to Language

  9. Doing Syntax Gather and observe data Make generalizations Develop Hypothesis Check your hypothesis Against more data Revise your hypothesis Confirm your hypothesis (Andrew Carnie, 2007) Introduction to Language

  10. Chomskyan Syntax • Syntax is seen to be a fundamental principle for encoding and decoding meaning and is the part of grammar shared by speakers and listeners in communication. • In 1957, American linguist Chomsky proposed the transformational-generative grammar (TG), thus providing a model of the description of human languages. • The GOAL of TG is to find out a system of rules to account for the linguistic competence of native speakers of a language to form grammatical sentences. Avram Noam Chomsky is an American linguist, philosopher, cognitive scientist, social critic, and political activist. Sometimes called "the father of modern linguistics“ Born: December 7, 1928 (age 90 years), East Oak Lane, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, United States. (Chomsky, Noam 2002) Introduction to Language

  11. Chomskyan Syntax Cont’d… • It is called ‘’transformational-generative’’ grammar because it attempts to do two things: • To provide the rules that can be used to generate grammatical sentences. • How basic sentences can be transformed into either synonymous phrases or more complex sentences. Syntactic Structures is a major work in linguistics by American linguist Noam Chomsky. It was first published in 1957. It introduced the idea of transformational generative grammar. (Chomsky, Noam 2002)

  12. Structural ambiguity Introduction to Language

  13. What is structural ambiguity ? • E.g. • The policeman saw a child in the car. • Two possible meanings: • The policeman saw a child who was in the car. • The policeman saw a child from inside the car. (Yule, 2010) Introduction to Language

  14. Tree diagram What is the tree diagram ? Ssentence, NP noun phrase, PN proper noun, N noun, VP verb phrase, V verb, Adj adjective, Detdeterminer (Art article) Other symbols Adv adverb, Adj adjective, Prep preposition Pro pronoun, PP prepositional phrase Pn proper noun (Yule, 2010) Introduction to Language

  15. Symbols used in syntactic analysis • Three more symbols arrow → it can be interpreted as consists of or rewrite as NP→ DetN a pair of round brackets ( ) are treated as an optional constituent, for example, a small dog is example of NP, adjective is optional constituent, so NP → Art(Adj)N curly brackets {} this is used when we indicate that two or more constituents. NP→Art NArtN NP→Pro NP →   ProNP→ { Art N, Pro, PN} NP→PnPN (Yule, 2010) Introduction to Language

  16. Phrase structure rules • These rules make a very large number of sentences with what look like a very small number of rules. • These rules show that the structure of a phrase of a specific type will consist of one or more elements in a particular order. • We can use phrase structure rules to present the information of the tree diagram in another form. • The information shows in the tree diagram. (Yule, 2010) Introduction to Language

  17. Phrase structure rules Cont’d… • The first rule in the following set of simple phrase structure rules states that ‘’ a sentence rewrite as a noun phrase and a verb phrase.’’ • The second rules stats that ‘’ a noun phrase rewrite as either an article plus an optional adjective plus a noun, or a pronoun, or a proper noun.’’ (Yule, 2010) Introduction to Language

  18. Lexical rules • These rules turn those structures into understandable English. • We need these rules that specify which words can be used when we edit or rewrite elements such as Noun becomes N. • The first rule in the following set situations that a proper noun rewrites as “Mary or George.’’ • We can depend on these rules to make the grammatical sentences shown as (1) and (2). • The dog ate the bone. • The boy helped you. • As a way to easy to be seen how the phrase structure rules form the basis of these sentences, we can draw the tree diagrams for sentence (1). (Yule, 2010) Introduction to Language

  19. Movement rules (Yule, 2010) Introduction to Language

  20. Recursion • Recursion is the repeated sequential use of a particular type of linguistic element or grammatical structure. Also called linguistic recursion. • Recursion has also been described more simply as the ability to place one component inside another component of the same kind. • A linguistic element or grammatical structure that can be used repeatedly in a sequence is said to be recursive. (Yule, 2010) Introduction to Language

  21. Recursion Cont’d… • The rules of the grammar will also need the crucial property of recursion. • Recursive (“repeatable any number of times”) rules have the capacity to be applied more than once in generating a structure. • e.g. • Repeat prepositional phrase more than once • The gun was on the table. • The gun was on the table near the window. • The gun was on the table near the window in the bedroom. • In this, we must be able to repeat the rule that creates a prepositional phrase over and over again. (Yule, 2010) Introduction to Language

  22. Recursion Cont’d… • Put sentences inside other sentences • Mary helped George. • Cathy knew that Mary helped George. • John believed that Cathy knew that Mary helped George. • We must also be able to put sentences inside other sentenses and these sentences can be generated inside another sentences. • No end to recursion that would produce longer complex sentences. • Our syntactic analysis should account for the fact that a sentence can have another sentence inside it or that a phrase can be repeated as often as required. (Yule, 2010) Introduction to Language

  23. Complement phrases • We normally start to create an S, we only create a single S(sentence structure), no recursive elements. • We actually need to be able to include sentences structures within other sentences structures. • In traditional grammar, these “sentence structures” were described as “clause”. • Mary helped George =a sentence (S) • Cathy knew that [Mary helped George]. • John believed that[Cathy knew that[Mary helped George]]. • In these sentences, two new proper nouns and two new verbs have been used. • PN = Jone and Cathy • V = believed and knew • After Verbs such as believe and know, as in these examples, the word that introduces a complement phrase. (Yule, 2010) Introduction to Language

  24. Complement phrases Cont’d… (Yule, 2010) Introduction to Language

  25. These two new rules in conjunction with and earlier rule, we can see how recursion is built into the grammar. • Use these rules to create an endless sentence containing other sentence structures as the following tree diagram; (Yule, 2010) Introduction to Language

  26. Syntax Research topics The Research Group in Syntax and Semantics • The syntax & semantics of particular languages: • English • Spanish • Scottish Gaelic • Japanese • Chinese • Ect. Introduction to Language

  27. Why was their work so significant? • This volume brings together recent research on the semantics and syntax of pseudo-incorporation , • which is a construction of crucial significance for linguistic explorations as it brings together several fundamental areas of linguistic research, such as morphology, argument structure, modification, discourse and information structure. • The main purpose is to further improve our understanding of the phenomenon, expand the domain of inquiry by bringing into focus new words of languages, offer new formal analyses of PI, and strengthen the links with other related phenomena, such as bare nominals. • Focusing on various properties of PI the articles in this volume set an excellent ground for further expansion of research in PI and related topics.  (O. Borik, 2015) Introduction to Language

  28. Scrambling & Word Order • Scrambling is a common term for pragmatic word order. • Every language is assumed to have a basic word order which is fundamental to its sentence structure, so languages which exhibit a wide variety of different orders are said to have "scrambled" them from their "normal" word order. E. g. drore =order Ypla =play Ogd =dog Slcas=class Poelpe =people (O. Borik, 2015) Introduction to Language

  29. Summary: Syntax • From this presentation we have learned: • 1. Syntax Overview • 2. Structural ambiguity • 3. Tree diagram • 4. Symbols used in syntactic analysis • 5. Phrase structure rules • 6. Lexical rules • 7. Movement rules • 8. Recursion • 9. Complement phrases • 10. Syntax Research topics Introduction to Language

  30. The end, thank you for listening and watching our presentation. I hope you enjoyed and also, gained some knowledge. Introduction to Language

  31. Bibliography: • 1. Carnie, A. (2007).Syntax: A generative introduction(pp. 5-9). Malden, MA: Blackwell Publishers. • 2. Chomsky, N.  (2002) [1957].Syntactic structures (pp. 10-11). The Hague: Mouton. • 3. Yule, G. (2010). The Study of language (pp. 13-25). Cambridge: Cambridge Press. • 4. Olga, B. (2015). The Syntax and Semantics of Pseudo-Incorporation (pp. 27,28). Brill Academic Pub.

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