R044 – Sports psychology Learning Outcomes • LO1 - Understand the relationship between personality and sports performance • LO2 - Know how motivation can affect sports performance • LO3 - Know how aggression can affect sports performance • LO4 - Understand the impact of arousal and anxiety on sports performance • LO5 - Be able to apply sport psychology strategies to enhance sports performance
Sports psychology The coach of the local basketball team which you represent has asked you to assist them in using sport psychology techniques to improve other players performances. The basketball squad is a gifted group of individuals who are struggling to get results which reflect their ability.
Personality and sports performance Watch me How many different theories or approaches are there to personality?
Personality and sports performance Personality is a unique characteristics of an individual. Knowledge about personality is important to ensure optimum sporting performance. Personality is defined as: ‘The stable and enduring aspects of an individual that causes them to behave in a certain way. i.e. calm, nervous, shy, outgoing.
Personality and sports performance Your personality can affect the type of sports you like and excel in. These are just general rules however, you may be an exception to the rule! Personalities are often described by how introverted or extroverted the individual is. Introverted people tend to be quiet, shy, thoughtful and enjoy own company. Extroverted people are more loud, sociable, talkative and excitable.
Personality and sports performance Whether you are more of an introvert or extrovert can affect the type of sport you like to play. Introverts are usually shy. They perform better at lower arousal levels. Too much stimulation will cause them to be over-aroused and they will not perform well. • Introverts tend to like sports which require: • Concentration • Precision • Self-motivation • Intricate closed skills • Low arousal levels • Individual performances/routines For example, archery, golf and snooker.
Personality and sports performance Extroverts are socially outgoing. They need high arousal levels to perform. Coaches and team mates need to keep them 'excited' about performing. They prefer team games with open skills and lots of unpredictability. • Extroverts prefer sports which are: • Exciting • Team sports • Fast paced • High arousal levels • Large, simple motor skills • Low concentration For example, rugby and boxing.
Personality and sports performance Proposed that personality traits can be grouped together in two ways or dimensions. Think. Pair. Share – What type of personality are you and what type of sports do you enjoy?
Personality and sports performance A coach should be aware of the players in a team and the types of personalities in it. Some situations may suit certain personalities. i.e. willingness to take a penalty.
Personality and sports performance There are a few theories of personality: • Trait Theory – Attributes are within us and underlying • Observed/Social Learning Theory – Behaviours learnt by observation and copying
Personality and sports performance Trait Theory This theory proposed that personalities are: • General (covering all situations) • Underlying (inside of and part of the person) • Enduring (long lasting) • Predisposition (formed at an early age) This theory suggests that you are born with a certain personality type which remains the same throughout life.
Personality and sports performance Observed or social learning theory: This theory suggests that behaviour is learned through interaction with the environment and those around us. Therefore, the response made by an individual cannot be predicted by innate characteristics. i.e. This approach may explain why a young football player may criticise the referee for a decision as they see it happening regularly by professionals.
Task 1: Personality and sports performance Learning Outcome 1 is assessed in this task You are to give a presentation to the basketball squad to help them to understand the links between personality and sports performance. Your should prepare a document to go alongside your talk which should include information about types of personality and factors that are important for the team to understand.
Motivation and sports performance Think. Pair. Share – What type of motivation exist?
Motivation and sports performance Motivation is thought to be a combination of the drive within us to achieve our aims and the outside factors which affect it. With this in mind, motivation has the following two forms, intrinsic motivation and extrinsic motivation. Players who are motivated will persist with the task, even when the odds are against them.
Motivation and sports performance Intrinsic motivation comes from within the performer and is characterised by feelings of pride, self satisfaction and accomplishment from completing or succeeding in a task.
Motivation and sports performance Intrinsic motivation include the thrill of scoring a goal, the satisfaction of winning a major competition. The feeling of well-being derived from such motivation ensures that the performer maintains the desire to continue with the activity.
Motivation and sports performance Extrinsic motivation is more temporary and comes from a source outside of the performer. These are things which can encourage the athlete to perform and fall into two groups; tangible and intangible. Tangible rewards: Physical rewards such as medals, certificates and money. These should be used sparingly with young athletes to avoid a situation where winning a prize is more important than competing well.
Motivation and sports performance Intangible rewards: Praise, recognition and applause. These should be used on a regular basis to encourage the athlete to repeat the behaviour which earned the praise.
Motivation and sports performance A coach should consider the personality of the performer before deciding on the best way to offer motivation. Extrovert individuals enjoy the limelight and can be praised openly. Others prefer to be praised quietly, away from others. Intangible rewards are seen as more effective than extrinsic ones. Overuse of extrinsic motivation can undermine the strength of intrinsic motivation as the performer become reliant on external elements.
Motivation and sports performance Achievement motivation is defined with the following criteria: • Desire to fulfil a need. • Drive to achieve a goal. • Something that directs behaviour. • Enables a person to focus or concentrate on a particular task. The theory of achievement motivation attempts to link personality with competitiveness. The main issue centres on the extent to which an individual is motivated to attain success.
Motivation and sports performance Some people are more willing to place themselves regularly in situations where achievement is compared or evaluated against others. A person who has high levels of achievement motivation would have a tendency to strive for success, persist in the face of failure and experience pride in accomplishments. Achievement motivation is the balance between the desire to succeed and the fear of failure.
Motivation and sports performance This theory based achievement motivation on an aspect of personality – based on two different motives. Need to Achieve (NACH) Characteristics: • Look for challenges • Concerned about standards of excellence and show high levels of performance • Persist for longer • Value feedback from others • Enjoy performing in evaluating situations • Are not afraid of failure • Attribute their performance to internal factors; success due to effort, failure to poor concentration
Motivation and sports performance Need to avoid failure (NAF) Characteristics: • Preoccupied by failure • Avoid challenging tasks • Dislike situations in which there is a 50-50 chance of success and in which others can evaluate them, as this situation is most likely to bring shame • Perform worse when they are being evaluated by others • Attribute their performance to external factors: success to luck, failure to tough opposition
Motivation and sports performance In every challenging situation, everyone will have both a need to achieve (Nach) and a need to avoid failure (Naf). Whichever feeling is stronger will determine whether a task is accepted or declined. • Motivation and the environment will affect: • Which sports/activities you choose to participate in. • How hard you try. • Level of persistence with a task/activity. Think. Pair. Share – Reflect on whether you have a need to achieve or need to avoid failure motivation and in what situation these have occurred.
Task 2: Motivation and sports performance Learning Outcome 2 is assessed in this task You must find out how motivation affects individual squad members and provide information to the coach which gives an overview of the links between motivation and performance and analyses the squad’s motivation levels.
Aggression and sports performance Think. Pair. Share – Does sport offer an outlet for aggression or create more aggression?
Aggression and sports performance Aggression between players, towards officials and by supporters is a constant source of concern in sport. In sports such as boxing or rugby there are behaviours which would not be tolerated in a non-sport setting, yet coaches may use aggression to ‘psych up’ their players. Clearly aggression has an unclear role in sport. Think. Pair. Share – Can you attempt to define aggression?
Aggression and sports performance Definition: “Any form of behaviour directed towards the goal of harming or injuring another living being who is motivated to avoid such treatment” Baron (1977) • Aggression has a number of features: • Is a behaviour – wanting to hit someone is not aggression, but hitting them is. • Involves harm or injury to another person – this can be either physical harm (cracked shin) or psychological • Involves intent – harm which is done accidentally is not aggression.
Aggression and sports performance Assertive behaviour:This is within the rules and spirit of the game and there is no attempt to harm. Some argue this is not technically a form of aggression as it does not involve feelings / actions towards another human. Legitimate force used.
Aggression and sports performance Many sporting situations there can be a fine line between assertion and aggression. It depends on intent. It is sometimes difficult for officials to determine this. Aggression Assertion Grey area of ambiguity
Aggression and sports performance Aggression can be direct or indirect in its nature. Direct – This is directed at an opponent or official. i.e. shouting at a referee. Indirect – This is aggression at an object i.e. throwing a racket in tennis out of frustration.
Aggression and sports performance Aggression may present itself in many different sporting situations. This includes: • Rivalry between teams/players based on past experience. • Frustration caused by poor form, opposition and referees decisions. • Scoreline or pressure to win • Behaviour of opposition (foul play/taunting/sledging) • Nature of the game (contact or non-contact)
Aggression and sports performance There are two main theories to explain aggression in sport: 1. Trait/instinct theory - This theory suggests that aggression is genetically inherited and that violence lies within everyone due to a basic instinct to dominate. It highlights that aggression is present in all and competition brings this out in people.
2. Social learning theory - Aggression is nurtured through environmental forces. It is learned by watching and copying role models and becomes an accepted mode of behaviour if it is reinforced. Aggression and sports performance Behaviour is learned through observation, imitation and reinforcement.
Aggression and sports performance Aggression is not innate it is learned like any other behaviour. Sport can play a major part in aggression because we observe people being aggressive such as judo, boxing and rugby. Role models have a high influence over us and makes us more likely to imitate their behaviour.
Task 3: Aggression and sports performance Learning Outcome 3 is assessed in this task You are required to highlight information about aggression in sport. This should include information about types of and reasons for aggression and use a variety of different sports to illustrate the main theories of aggression.
Arousal and anxiety in sports performance The effects of arousal can be positive or negative and affects performers differently. It affects the body both physiologically and psychologically. Definition: “An energised state of readiness before performing a task” Think. Pair. Share – What situations can be affected by arousal?
Arousal and anxiety in sports performance Drive theory: This theory suggests a proportional linear relationship between arousal and performance. The more an individual is aroused the better the performance. With increased arousal the dominant habit / most usual behaviour will be reproduced. A poorly-learned skill will give a performance full of mistakes whereas a well-learned skill will give a skilled performance.
Arousal and anxiety in sports performance Problems with Drive theory:1. Even highly skilled players ‘choke’ in highly charged situations. i.e. Penalty shot. 2. By increasing drive (arousal) performers often resort to previously learned skills because they are dominant but may be incorrect. (novices, intermediates)
Arousal and anxiety in sports performance Watch me What is the inverted U theory all about?
Arousal and anxiety in sports performance The inverted U theory suggests there is an optimum arousal level and if aroused more than this performance will decline. When drawn on a graph this appears as an upside down U shape.
Arousal and anxiety in sports performance As arousal increases so does performance, up to an optimal point.
Arousal and anxiety in sports performance After this optimal point, further increases in arousal will lead to a decline in performance.
Arousal and anxiety in sports performance The Individual Zone of Optimal Functioning (IZOF) is the area which the performer feels like movements are effortless and they make the right decisions quickly. • To maximise the chances of achieving IZOF athletes should: • Be relaxed • Feel confident • Completely focus • Be in control • Have fun ‘The Zone’
Arousal and anxiety in sports performance Sports coaches and psychologists can measure anxiety through two main test. Sport Competition Anxiety Test (SCAT) questionnaire - This is a series of questions about typical response in certain situations. This is a valid way of predicting or measuring an individual’s response to stressful environments and is closely linked to personality.
Arousal and anxiety in sports performance State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI) – This is a commonly used measure of trait and state anxiety.
Task 4: Arousal and anxiety in sports performance Learning Outcome 4 is assessed in this task You are to carry out anxiety tests on individual squad members and analyse the findings for the coach. You will then produce a resource for the squad on how arousal and anxiety levels can affect sports performance for use after the testing has been completed.
Psychological strategies to enhance performance There are many ways to deal with setbacks in sport and maintain high motivation. The following are popular methods used by athletes.
Psychological strategies to enhance performance Watch me How might setting goals help an athlete improve?