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ION ( SPECIAL ATOMS)

ION ( SPECIAL ATOMS)

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ION ( SPECIAL ATOMS)

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  1. ION(SPECIAL ATOMS) a. Atom that gains or loses electrons b. Have an unequal number of e- and p+ c. Have net negative or positive charge d. Very reactive atoms Ion

  2. Isotopes(SPECIAL ATOMS) • Atom with the same number of protons but a different number of neutrons; different mass b. Unstable nucleus; releases radiation; can damage living tissue c. Used in medicine and research 1. Biological tracers 2. Dating Objects 3. Treating cancer 6P 6N Carbon - 12 6P 8N Carbon - 14

  3. Formation of Compounds by Bonding • Compounds = 2 or more elements in a fixed ratio B. Have new properties from atoms • Covalent Bonds = 2 atoms share one or more valence electrons (forms molecules); very strong bond • Ionic Bonds = transfer of electrons; formed by electrical attraction between two oppositely charged ions. (form crystals)

  4. Chemical Formulas 1 .Molecular Formula= each element represented by its symbol; proportions fixed; and indicated by subscript. Examples: NaCl, H20, H2, O2 • Structural Formula = shows number and kind of atoms and how atoms bond together (lines represent bonds which are made of ____) Example: H-O-H, H-C=C-H

  5. Chemical Reactions = a. process of breaking and/or forming chemical bonds b. Reactantsgo to Products: 3H2 + N2 2NH3 (reactants) (products) c. Equations must be balanced d. Mass cannot be created or destroyed (Law of Conservation of Mass)

  6. Chemical Reactions Important for Life • Photosynthesis 6CO2 + 6H2OC6H12O6 + 6O2 Glucose B. Cellular Respiration C6H12O6 + 6O2  6CO2 + 6H2O + Energy Light Energy Chlorophyll