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General Entomology and Insect Identification

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  1. General Entomology and Insect Identification Dr. Gus Lorenz, Extension Entomologist Pesticide Recertification Little Rock February 7, 2007

  2. General Entomology

  3. General Characteristics: • - Three pairs of legs (jointed appendages) • - Winged (1 or 2 pair usually) • - Hardened exoskeleton • Three major body regions: head, thorax & • abdomen Insects

  4. Taxonomic Classification Kingdom - Animal Phylum - Arthropoda (insects, spiders, crayfish, millipedes, centipedes) Class - Insecta (insects) Order - Diptera (many other insect orders) Family - Muscidae Genus - Musca Species - domestica Common name - house fly

  5. Types of Metamorphosis • No Metamorphosis - gradual increase in size with no change (springtails) • Gradual Metamorphosis - egg, nymph, adult nymph may look similar to adult, but wings do not develop until adult stage (grasshopper) • Incomplete Metamorphosis - egg, naiads, adult similar to gradual except naiads are aquatic (dragonflies, mayflies, stone flies) • Complete Metamorphosis - egg, larva, pupa, adult (true flies, ants, butterflies, beetles, etc.)

  6. Common Orders of Insects Lumpers vs. Splitters

  7. Order Collembola: Springtails • 8 Families • Wingless • Furcula to jump • Primitive • Moist soil, humus & leaf mold • Related Orders: Protura, Diplura, Thysanura, • Microcoryphia No Metamorphosis

  8. Order Thysanura: Bristletails • 3 Families • Wingless • Primitive • Found in caves, under rocks and leaves, & in buildings No Metamorphosis

  9. Order Ephemeroptera: Mayflies • 20 Families • Naiads- aquatic • Importance: Aquatic food web • Emerge in enormous numbers Incomplete Metamorphosis

  10. Order Odonata: Dragonflies and Damselflies • 11 Families • Nymphs - aquatic • Large: up to 125mm • Importance: Aquatic food web • Predators as nymphs & adults Incomplete Metamorphosis

  11. OrthopteroidOrders Order Orthoptera - Grasshoppers, crickets, katydids Order Blattaria - cockroaches Order Mantodea - Praying mantid Order Phasmida - Walking sticks 2 pairs of wings and chewing mouthparts Several families * all were once in the Order Orthoptera Gradual Metamorphosis

  12. Order Dictyoptera: Cockroaches (Blattaria) • 5 Families • Males with longer wings than females • Important Species: German, American and Oriental

  13. Order Orthoptera Grasshoppers

  14. Camel Cricket

  15. Order Mantodea - Mantids • Often included in either Dictyoptera or Orthoptera • Elongated body for camouflage • Beneficial - highly predacious • 20 species in North America

  16. Order Phasmida - Walking Sticks • Often placed in • Orthoptera • Stick like appearance • For camouflage • - Hides in vegetation • - Insignificant herbivore

  17. Order Dermaptera:Earwigs • 5 Families • Nocturnal and hide under debris & bark • Adults: Winged and Wingless • Forceps-like cerci • Name derived from superstition • European earwig Gradual Metamorphosis

  18. Order Isoptera:Termites • 4 Families • Social insect • Reproductives with wings • Above ground and subterranean • Feed on cellulose from wood • Formosan Termite Gradual Metamorphosis

  19. Order Embioptera: Webspinners • 3 Families • Female wingless • Live in silken galleries spun in debris • Few species occur in the U.S. • Feed on dead grass, leaves, moss, bark & lichens Gradual Metamorphosis

  20. Order Plecoptera: Stoneflies • 11 Families • Poor fliers • Aquatic nymphs are plant feeders, predators • Many adults do not feed • A few species may inhabit wells Incomplete Metamorphosis

  21. Order Psocoptera: Psocids • 13 Families • Also called Barklice, Booklice • Very small • Winged or wingless • Feed on fungi, pollen, dead insects, etc. • May congregate and make weds on tree trunks & branches Gradual Metamorphosis

  22. Order Mallophaga: Chewing Lice • 7 Families • External parasite on birds and mammals • Wingless • Cattle biting louse Gradual Metamorphosis

  23. Order Anoplura: Sucking Lice • 9 Families • External parasite on mammals • Wingless • Long-nosed cattle louse, Human body louse Gradual Metamorphosis

  24. Order Thysanoptera: Thrips • 5 Families • Winged or wingless • Very small • Pest of cultivated plants Azalea, various trees, onions, etc. • Vectors of plant diseases Gradual Metamorphosis

  25. Order Hemiptera: True Bugs • 50 Families • Basal part of wing thickened, apical part of wing membranous • Piercing/sucking mouthparts • Varied habitats • Pests: Harlequin, squash, cotton stainer, lace bug • Beneficial: Ambush, pirate, damsel, wheel Gradual Metamorphosis

  26. Boxelder Bug

  27. Harlequin Bug

  28. Leaf footed Bug

  29. Predaceous Stink Bug

  30. Lace Bug

  31. Order Homoptera: Hoppers, cicadas, aphids, whiteflies, scale • 39 Families • Closely related to Hemiptera • Piercing/sucking mouthparts • Front wings uniform, held rooflike over body • Diverse group • Pests: Cicadas, aphids, leafhoppers, mealybugs • Some species transmit plant diseases Gradual Metamorphosis

  32. Aphids

  33. Wooly Apple Aphid

  34. Cicadas