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Alcohol & drugs

Alcohol & drugs

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Alcohol & drugs

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  1. Alcohol & drugs Effects & Risks to Your Health

  2. STUDENT eXPECTATIONS After reviewing this Unit, you should be able to: • Identify Alcohol’s pathway once ingested • Identify the harmful effects & risks of Alcohol on the body • Define Blood Alcohol Concentration & factors that determine a person’s BAC • Identify the differences between medicines & drugs • Identify the differences between drug misuse & abuse • Identify the categories of drugs, effects, & risks on the body

  3. Alcohol pre-test Answers • TRUE – based on percentage of alcohol by volume • FALSE – Alcohol is digested by different organs in the body • FALSE – Alcohol is a Depressant (slows body down) • TRUE • TRUE – 5 oz. wine, 1.5 oz. shot of liquor, or 12 oz. can of beer • FALSE – BAC/BAL stands for how much alcohol is in the bloodstream • FALSE – only way to eliminate alcohol is through urine, sweat, or liver • TRUE – depends on a person’s BAC & other factors • TRUE – • TRUE

  4. Alcohol: its process, types, & standard drink • Alcohol is referred to ethanol & is made through a process called Fermentation – a conversion of sugar to carbon dioxide and alcohol by yeast • Fermentation will yield certain types of alcohol such as beer, wine, and liquors (vodka) • A “standard” drink is any drink that contains 14 grams of pure alcohol or .6 fluid ounces Standard Drink Equivalents: • Beer = 12 ounces, Wine = 4-5 ounces, Liquor (80pf) = 1.5 ounces

  5. Alcohol’s pathway • Mouth: Alcohol enters the body • Stomach: some alcohol gets into the bloodstream but most goes to the small intestine • Small Intestine: alcohol enters the bloodstream through the wall of the small intestine • Heart: pumps alcohol throughout the body • Brain: alcohol reaches the brain from the bloodstream • Liver: alcohol is oxidized (burned up) by the liver at a rate of .5 fluid ounces per hour • Alcohol is converted into water, carbon dioxide, & energy

  6. Short & long-term effects LONG Brain – disrupts behavior, learning, & memory Heart – blood pressure increases – heart disease, heart attack or stroke Lungs – damage cells of lungs to remove fluids (choking), reduces immune response Liver – organ responsible for filtering alcohol from the bloodstream - Cirrhosis = scarring of liver tissue - Cancer SHORT • Relaxing effect • Slurred speech • Slowed reaction time, coordination, & concentration ,& vision • Altered emotions • More blood flow to surface of skin & lower core body temperature

  7. Blood Alcohol concentration (bac) • Ratio of Alcohol to Blood in the body (%) • 5 Factors that influence a person’s BAC • Gender- stronger effect on females • Body Weight- A heavy weight results in more fluids to mix w/alcohol resulting in a lower BAC • Strength & Size of Drink- Stronger alcohol content consumed, higher BAC will rise & larger drinks contain more alcohol • Food- possible to slow rate in which alcohol is absorbed • Time- faster a person drinks, quicker their BAC will rise

  8. BAC Level .01 BAC Level • Illegal for a person 16-20 years of age to drive a vehicle • All drivers under 21 who commit a DUI can be subject to a 6 month driver’s license suspension, probation, fined, or jailed .08 BAC Level • Illegal for a person 21 or older to drive a vehicle • Person is 11 times more likely to be involved in a fatal crash than someone who has had nothing to drink

  9. Medicine vs. Drugs – misuse vs. abuse Misuse – Inappropriate use of prescribed or non-prescribed medicine, but not for “pleasure” or other non-medical purposes. Abuse– repeatedly and willfully using a drug in a way other than prescribed or socially sanctioned Medicine – drug(s) that are used to treat illness or relieve pain (tylenol for a headache) 2 Types: • OTC (over the counter) – no need for a written prescription • Prescription (Rx) – written order from a doctor (anitbiotics) Drugs- chemical substances taken into the body that can change the structure or function of body/mind (increase heart rate or hallucinations)

  10. Categories of drugs Opioids • Heroin - Injected, smoked, swallowed Effects: • Impaired coordination, slow/arrested breathing Risks: • Addiction, fatal overdose, hepatitis, HIV Cannabinoids • Marijuana, Hashish -Smoked, swallowed Effects: • Euphoria, slow reaction time, distorted sensory perception Risks: • Frequent respiratory infections, cough, addiction, memory loss

  11. Categories of drugs Club Drugs • MDMA (Ecstasy), Rohypnol, GHB • Known as Date Rape Drugs - Swallowed, snorted, injected Effects: • Lowered inhibitions, sedation, muscle relaxation, confusion, memory loss Risks: • Impaired memory, seizures, coma, addiction & at risk to be assaulted Stimulants • Cocaine, Amphetamine, Methamphetamines - Inhaled, Injected, taken orally Effects: • Increases all body functions, i.e., heart rate, breathing rate, anxiety, psychosis Risks: • Cardiac complications, seizures, nasal damage, dental problems, addiction

  12. Categories of drugs Anabolic Steroids • Man-made substance related to testosterone (HGH) - Injected, swallowed, absorbed through skin Risks: Males – reduced sperm production, breast tissue growth (enlargement), shrunken testicles Females – menstrual irregularities, take on male characteristics (deeper voice, hair growth) Hallucinogens • LSD, mushrooms, peyote - Swallowed, smoked Effects: • Increased body temp, blood pressure, heart rate, altered states of perception & feeling Risks: • Flashbacks (causes brain to misfire & send incorrect signals)

  13. Categories of drugs Depressants • Xanax, Valium - Swallowed, injected Effects: • Slows down body functions • Sedation, drowsiness, impaired coordination/memory Risks: • Decrease in blood pressure, breathing, respiratory arrest, death