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Exploring the Ocean
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Exploring the Ocean

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  1. Exploring the Ocean Tools and Techniques Used to Explore Our Oceans

  2. Research Vessels • Ships and Boats • Most common • Versatile • Can carry many other types of research equipment • Wide variety – based on use • Large ships with large crews for long term, distant research • Small boats, small crews coastal research

  3. Challenger(1872-1876) • Fast sailing ship – Corvette • Often considered to be first truly scientific oceanographic voyage • Crew of over 200, research party of 6 • Soundings • Sampled sea floor • Collected biological specimens • Measured water temp at various depths • Measured and charted currents • Made Atmospheric and Meteorological Observations

  4. HMS Challenger

  5. Glomar Challenger(1968) • Deep sea drilling project • Drilled and recovered cores from about 1000 holes drilled in Atlantic, Pacific and Indian Oceans • Cores provided evidence of sea floor spreading

  6. 400 Ft long • Drilling derrick – almost 200 ft above water level • Can load 1million pound cores Glomar Challenger

  7. Core Sample Storage at Woods Hole Oceanographic

  8. Gravity Corer Cutting Head

  9. Gravity Corer Cutting Head after a close encounter with a hydrothermal vent

  10. JOIDES Resolution(1980’s) • Joint Oceanographic Institutions Deep Earth Sampling • Follow-up to Glomar Challenger • More modern and sophisticated

  11. FLIP • FLIP – FLoating Instrument Platform • Scripps Institute – La Jolla – Steady Platform for conducting research • Must be towed to site FLIP Flipping!

  12. YouTube - FLIP marine research vessel

  13. R/V Atlantis • WHOI Research Vessel • 3 Generation • Carries wide array of equipment • Best known for being able to deploy Alvin and Jason (submersibles)

  14. Calypso • Famous for being the flagship of Jacques Cousteau • Cousteau was a world famous oceanographer, marine biologist and inventor of SCUBA

  15. Submersibles • Any vessel capable of going beneath the surface • Can be manned or un-manned

  16. Turtle(1776) • One of the earliest submarines • One man Vessel • Powered by hand • Designed for warfare • Was used to attach explosives to ships

  17. Trieste (1960)

  18. Bathyscaphe – a bathysphere (strong sphere with viewing ports) that was not attached to surface ship • One and only manned trip to Challenger Deep in Marianas Trench (35,000 ft)

  19. Alvin • WHOI Submersible • Carries remote instruments and crew of up to 3 persons, to almost 15,000 ft (86% of Earth’s Oceans)

  20. Technology at WHOI :: Alvin

  21. Pros Allows direct observation Able to operate independent of surface ship Can explore small features Can remain stationary with relative ease Cons Dependence on surface ship to carry or tow them to site Small crew Cramped and uncomfortable Not a very large range Pros and Cons of Submersibles

  22. ROVs • ROV – Remote Operated Vehicle • Controlled from surface ship or with-in submersible • Often carry camera, remote arm, collection devices, etc. • Can be used to explore places too small or dangerous for submersible

  23. Jason – ROV that was paired with Alvin in initial exploration of Titanic Jason being deployed from side of ship

  24. Hercules hovering near stern of Titanic Jason Jr. peers into a window of Titanic

  25. Sediment Sampling Shipek Grab

  26. Clamshell Sampler

  27. Niskin Bottle Top and bottom close at a predetermined depth to collect water Water brought to surface for testing Water Sampling

  28. Conductivity (salinity) and Temperature with Depth –CTD Carousel