1 / 39

Chapter 14

Chapter 14. Sampling. Learning Objectives. Understand . . . The two premises on which sampling theory is based. The accuracy and precision for measuring sample validity. The five questions that must be answered to develop a sampling plan. Learning Objectives. Understand . . .

Télécharger la présentation

Chapter 14

An Image/Link below is provided (as is) to download presentation Download Policy: Content on the Website is provided to you AS IS for your information and personal use and may not be sold / licensed / shared on other websites without getting consent from its author. Content is provided to you AS IS for your information and personal use only. Download presentation by click this link. While downloading, if for some reason you are not able to download a presentation, the publisher may have deleted the file from their server. During download, if you can't get a presentation, the file might be deleted by the publisher.


Presentation Transcript

  1. Chapter 14 Sampling

  2. Learning Objectives Understand . . . • The two premises on which sampling theory is based. • The accuracy and precision for measuring sample validity. • The five questions that must be answered to develop a sampling plan.

  3. Learning Objectives Understand . . . • The two categories of sampling techniques and the variety of sampling techniques within each category. • The various sampling techniques and when each is used.

  4. PulsePoint: Research Revelation 43 The percent of U.S. restaurant workers who work under 100% smoke-free workplace policies.

  5. What Is a Sufficiently Large Sample? “In recent Gallup ‘Poll on polls,’ . . . When asked about the scientific sampling foundation on which polls are based . . . most said that a survey of 1,500 – 2,000 respondents—a larger than average sample size for national polls—cannot represent the views of all Americans.” Frank Newport, The Gallup Poll editor in chief, The Gallup Organization

  6. The Nature of Sampling • Sampling • Population Element • Population • Census • Sampling frame

  7. Greater speed Why Sample? Availability of elements Lower cost Sampling provides Greater accuracy

  8. When Is a Census Appropriate? Feasible Necessary

  9. What Is a Valid Sample? Accurate Precise

  10. Sampling Design within the Research Process

  11. Types of Sampling Designs

  12. Steps in Sampling Design What is the target population? What are the parameters of interest? What is the sampling frame? What is the appropriate sampling method? What size sample is needed?

  13. Population variance Desired precision Number of subgroups Confidence level Small error range When to Use Larger Sample Sizes?

  14. Advantages Easy to implement with random dialing Disadvantages Requires list of population elements Time consuming Uses larger sample sizes Produces larger errors High cost Simple Random

  15. Advantages Simple to design Easier than simple random Easy to determine sampling distribution of mean or proportion Disadvantages Periodicity within population may skew sample and results Trends in list may bias results Moderate cost Systematic

  16. Advantages Control of sample size in strata Increased statistical efficiency Provides data to represent and analyze subgroups Enables use of different methods in strata Disadvantages Increased error will result if subgroups are selected at different rates Especially expensive if strata on population must be created High cost Stratified

  17. Advantages Provides an unbiased estimate of population parameters if properly done Economically more efficient than simple random Lowest cost per sample Easy to do without list Disadvantages Often lower statistical efficiency due to subgroups being homogeneous rather than heterogeneous Moderate cost Cluster

  18. Stratified Population divided into few subgroups Homogeneity within subgroups Heterogeneity between subgroups Choice of elements from within each subgroup Cluster Population divided into many subgroups Heterogeneity within subgroups Homogeneity between subgroups Random choice of subgroups Stratified and Cluster Sampling

  19. Area Sampling

  20. Advantages May reduce costs if first stage results in enough data to stratify or cluster the population Disadvantages Increased costs if discriminately used Double Sampling

  21. Time Nonprobability Samples No need to generalize Feasibility Limited objectives Cost

  22. Nonprobability Sampling Methods Convenience Judgment Quota Snowball

  23. Area sampling Census Cluster sampling Convenience sampling Disproportionate stratified sampling Double sampling Judgment sampling Multiphase sampling Nonprobability sampling Population Population element Population parameters Population proportion of incidence Probability sampling Key Terms

  24. Proportionate stratified sampling Quota sampling Sample statistics Sampling Sampling error Sampling frame Sequential sampling Simple random sample Skip interval Snowball sampling Stratified random sampling Systematic sampling Systematic variance Key Terms

  25. Appendix 14a Determining Sample Size

  26. Random Samples

  27. Increasing Precision

  28. Confidence Levels & the Normal Curve

  29. Standard Errors

  30. Central Limit Theorem

  31. Estimates of Dining Visits

  32. Calculating Sample Size for Questions involving Means Precision Confidence level Size of interval estimate Population Dispersion Need for FPA

  33. Metro U Sample Size for Means

  34. Proxies of the Population Dispersion • Previous research on the topic • Pilot test or pretest • Rule-of-thumb calculation • 1/6 of the range

  35. Metro U Sample Size for Proportions

  36. Central limit theorem Confidence interval Confidence level Interval estimate Point estimate Proportion Appendix 15a: Key Terms

  37. Addendum: Keynote CloseUp

  38. Keynote Experiment

  39. Keynote Experiment (cont.)

More Related