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ORGANIZATIONAL BEHAVIOR. W W W . P R E N H A L L . C O M / R O B B I N S. T E N T H E D I T I O N. Besides your textbook concepts, you will also learn to:. Understand the role of organizational culture Vision, mission ,values Dominant, culture/sub-cultures
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ORGANIZATIONAL BEHAVIOR W W W . P R E N H A L L . C O M / R O B B I N S T E N T H E D I T I O N
Besides your textbook concepts, you will also learn to: • Understand the role of organizational culture • Vision, mission ,values • Dominant, culture/sub-cultures • Merging cultures • Creativity and innovation in workplace • Organizational socialization • Keeping culture alive L E A R N I N G O B J E C T I V E S
The Basic Functions of Organizational Culture Organizational Culture/basic functions Provides a sense of identity for members Enhances commitment to the organization’s mission Clairifies and reinforces standards of behavior
Core Organizational Values Reflected in Culture • Sensitivity to needs of customers and employees • Freedom to initiate new ideas • Willingness to tolerate taking risks • Openness to communication options
Today’s Mergers and Acquisitions: Will They be Tomorrow’s Culture Clashes? Merged with… Travelers Nations Bank First Chicago NBD Corestates To become… Citigroup Bankamerica Bank One First Union This bank… Citicorp Bank America Bank One First Union
Greatest creativity Components of Creativity Skills in the Task Domain Skills in Creative Thinking Intrinsic Motivation
Skills in Innovation Management: A Careful Balancing Act Linked to corporate mission Goals …but not overly specific Generously and fairly reward one’s contributors …but not so specific as to connect everything to money Reward Systems Sense of urgency Time Pressure …but not too urgent
The Process of Innovation Progress Stage 1 Setting the Agenda Stage 2 Setting the Stage Stage 3 Producing the Ideas Stage 4 Testing and Implementing the Ideas Stage 5 Outcome Assessment Success End Failure End Individual or Team Productivity Motivation Resources Skills
Creating a Customer-Responsive Culture • Key Variables Shaping Customer-Responsive Cultures • The types of employees hired by the organization. • Low formalization: the freedom to meet customer service requirements. • Empowering employees with decision-making discretion to please the customer. • Good listening skills to understand customer messages. • Role clarity that allows service employees to act as “boundary spanners.” • Employees who engage in organizational citizenship behaviors.
Creating An Ethical Organizational Culture • Characteristics of Organizations that Develop High Ethical Standards • High tolerance for risk • Low to moderate in aggressiveness • Focus on means as well as outcomes • Managerial Practices Promoting an Ethical Culture • Being a visible role model. • Communicating ethical expectations. • Providing ethical training. • Visibly rewarding ethical acts and punishing unethical ones.
What Is Organizational Culture? • Characteristics: • Innovation and risk taking • Attention to detail • Outcome orientation • People orientation • Team orientation • Aggressiveness • Stability
What Is Organizational Culture? (cont’d) • Culture Versus Formalization • A strong culture increases behavioral consistency and can act as a substitute for formalization. • Organizational Culture Versus National Culture • National culture has a greater impact on employees than does their organization’s culture. • Nationals selected to work for foreign companies may be atypical of the local/native population.
What Do Cultures Do? • Culture’s Functions: • Defines the boundary between one organization and others. • Conveys a sense of identity for its members. • Facilitates the generation of commitment to something larger than self-interest. • Enhances the stability of the social system.
What Do Cultures Do? • Culture as a Liability: • Barrier to change • Barrier to diversity • Barrier to acquisitions and mergers
Creating a Customer-Responsive Culture • Managerial Actions: • Select new employees with personality and attitudes consistent with high service orientation. • Train and socialize current employees to be more customer focused. • Change organizational structure to give employees more control. • Empower employees to make decision about their jobs.
Keeping Culture Alive • Selection • Concerned with how well the candidates will fit into the organization. • Provides information to candidates about the organization. • Top Management • Senior executives help establish behavioral norms that are adopted by the organization. • Socialization • The process that helps new employees adapt to the organization’s culture.
A Socialization Model 18-2 E X H I B I T
Entry Socialization Options • Formal versus Informal • Individual versus Collective • Fixed versus Variable • Serial versus Random • Investiture versus Divestiture 18-3 E X H I B I T
How Organization Cultures Form 18-4 E X H I B I T
How Employees Learn Culture • Stories • Rituals • Material Symbols • Language
Creating a Customer-Responsive Culture • Managerial Actions (cont’d) : • Lead by conveying a customer-focused vision and demonstrating commitment to customers. • Conduct performance appraisals based on customer-focused employee behaviors. • Provide ongoing recognition for employees who make special efforts to please customers.
Spirituality and Organizational Culture • Characteristics: • Strong sense of purpose • Focus on individual development • Trust and openness • Employee empowerment • Toleration of employee expression
How Organizational Cultures Have an Impact on Performance and Satisfaction 18-7 E X H I B I T