Geography Update A QCA perspective on 3 – 19 geography David Gardner QCA 19th April 2006
KRA 1: Curriculum ‘Develop a modern, world-class curriculum that will inspire and challenge all learners and prepare them for the future’
Current work • KS3 Review • GCSE coursework • GCSE Pilot • A Level subject criteria • Teacher assessment publication • Innovating with .. Website • India/Chembakolli visit
KEY STAGE 3 REMIT: 14-19 WHITE PAPER • Continued focus on the core subjects English, Maths and Science, with more time freed up to allow for catch up. • Tests to continue in the core subjects, with an additional online test in ICT. • Moderated teacher assessment in foundation subjects, and a bank of standardised optional tests will be provided. • Implications for QCA:QCA is undertaking a full review of KS3, to: • Reduce the overall level of prescription • Place greater emphasis on English, Maths and ICT; • Give more scope for schools to stretch young people; • Give more support for those who fall behind expected standards; • Ensure the curriculum for all subjects is as coherent as possible.
Forces for change • Changes in society, social structures and the nature of work. • The impact of technology on subjects and schooling. • New understandings about the nature of learning. • Increased global dimension to life, learning and work. • The public policy agenda (DfES strategy/white papers, ECM) promoting innovation and personalisation.
A curriculum - fit for the future should… • focus on aims and outcomes – rather than coverage or delivery. • have a stronger emphasis on skills and personaldevelopment (ECM) • use teaching approaches (active, enquiry based) that relate directly to developing skills and attributes • value knowledge – linked to creativity and knowledge creation, • be flexible enough to be organised in different ways and have room to innovate • be relevant and connected to life outside school – the big issues, work, community • use technology to extend (when, where, how) learning takes place • have a strong international dimension – and promote citizenship
X Whose curriculum is it anyway? Government • Broad description of outcomes based on the well being of: • individuals • society • economy • based on values that underpin a plural liberal democracy X Learners Schools and communities • Building on local strengths and ethos • Local needs • Local resources such as community and business expertise • What interests me • What my talents are • In a way that works for me
Our pledges to Young People We want the curriculum to enable all young people to become: • successful learnerswho enjoy learning, make progress and achieve • confident individuals who are able to live a safe, healthy and fulfilling life • responsible citizens who make a positive contribution to society.
SUCCESSFUL LEARNERS who… • enjoy learning and aremotivated to learn • aredetermined to achieve the best they can • have the essential learning skills of literacy, numeracy and information and communication technology • communicate well through a range of media • think for themselves, have enquiring minds and are open to new ideas • are able to process information, reason, question and evaluate • are creative, enterprising and able to solve problems • understand how they learn and learn from their mistakes • are able to learnindependently and with others • are able to transfer knowledge and skills to new situations • appreciate the benefits and fulfilment that learning can bring.
CONFIDENT INDIVIDUALS who… • have a sense of self-worth and believe in themselves • recognise their talents and have ambitions • are willing to try new things and make the most of opportunities • are able to take the initiative and organise themselves • relate well to others and form good relationships • are self-aware and deal well with their emotions • have securevalues and beliefs • make healthy lifestyle choices • are physically competent and confident • take managed risks and stay safe • resist negative pressures and make informed choices • become increasingly independent • gain enjoyment and inspiration from the natural world and human achievements.
RESPONSIBLE CITIZENS who… • make a positive contribution to the communities in which they live, learn and work • feel that they can change things for the better • act with integrity and live according to secure values and beliefs • understand different cultures and traditions and have a strong sense of their own place in the world • respect others • live peaceably and work productively with others • challenge injustice and are committed to human rights • maintain and improve the environment, locally and globally • are enterprising and able to contribute to the economic well-being of society • feel they can make a difference for the better
Team workers Self-managers Independent enquirers Reflective learners Creative thinkers Effective participators PERSONAL, LEARNING AND THINKING SKILLS 11-19 The framework comprises six groups of skills that, together with the functional skills of English, mathematics and ICT, are essential to success in learning, life and work. The skills are generic and are applicable across all learning throughout the 11-19 age range. They are equally important to all learners, irrespective of the setting, andsupport young people's employability. SUCCESSFUL YOUNG PEOPLE ARE:
Opportunities for Geography • Futures thinking - subject fit for 21st century • Clarify what the subject is about and its importance in the whole curriculum • Make a clear link to the new aims and PLT’s • Update to take into account developments since 2000 review • Address issues with PoS and Level descriptions • Coordinate progression in the subject 14-19 linked to new A level criteria
KS3 geography issues – QCA monitoring 2005 The problems of inadequate curriculum planning and poor quality teaching and learning at KS3. A combination of relatively low status in many secondary schools and a high proportion of non-specialist teachers is resulting in poorly planned curricula and missed opportunities to inspire and challenge pupils. Declining opportunities for high quality fieldwork to be experienced by pupils”Fieldwork and outdoor education are not just add-on; it is absolutely core for geography and for young people’s learning in general” RGS-IBG evidence to Select Committee 2005 2004-05 shows unequivocally that concerns about health and safety, curriculum time, staff time and expertise, and budget constraints are combining to reduce the amount and effectiveness of fieldwork offered in schools. Assessment remains a major issue in KS3 geography with pupils being over-assessed to meet schools’ requirements for frequent reporting of levels. This focus on summative assessment has been detrimental to high quality assessment for learning.
QCA monitoring questionnaire 308 schools Issues for KS 3 review ?
David Bell Education for Democratic Citizenship First, we have a problem with geography in many schools. In many primary schools it is the worst taught subject and in secondary schools its popularity as a GCSE subject has been diminishing. The teaching is sometimes dull and fails to maintain current relevance, not drawing sufficiently on the issues most likely to capture the imagination and interest of young people such as globalisation and sustainable development. My view is that a partnership between geography and citizenship, where appropriate, will energise the former and give substance to the latter. I suggest to you that citizenship can be a breath of fresh air, making geography relevant, exciting and, most important of all, empowering pupils so that they know how they can make a difference. The best resources for lessons on global issues will often be this morning’s news rather than a textbook. Enquiry and research into global issues should deal with principles but be informed by issues of the moment and real examples. Nov 2005
OCTOBER - DECEMBER 2005 • Consultation with stakeholders and partners (re: how curriculum might be developed) through conferences, seminars and meetings • A series of meetings with partners and stakeholders on draft framework of personal, learning and thinking skills • Evaluation of existing curriculum (PoS and frameworks) with practitioners and stakeholders. • Detailed proposals for development process for assessment & costings.
OCTOBER - DECEMBER 2005 Geog report • In summary, the action required is: • Redraft the statement on the importance of geography. • Reform the PoS so as to provide more flexibility in choice of content and up-date the curriculum in the light of new thinking in the subject, making it fit for purpose in the 21st century. • Focus on those features that should drive the curriculum, i.e. consideration of key concepts, values, skills and techniques and scale/context of study. • Ensure in all this that content serves rather than drives the curriculum. • Reconsider the role and character of the level descriptions and once decisions have been made redraft them.
FROM JANUARY - May 2006 Geography Jan - March Online consultation about draft of importance statement on GA & RGS website http://www.geography.org.uk/news/consultation Feb Circulate papers to residential delegates 1st – 2nd March Residential – to write new importance statement, PoS models, level descriptions 15th March Teacher’s meeting to consult on PoS models 15 teachers 18th-20th April Geographical Association conference QCA update presentation by DG Wednesday 19th April May Draft importance statement , PoS, level descriptions
New Importance statement plan • A ‘HOOK’ LINE TO GRAB INTEREST and firmly establish the excitement and relevance of geography in the widest possible sense. Either of the two draft versions (or even the old version) are useful starting points • WHAT IS TAUGHT: a sentence or two that outlines what you get in this subject e.g. from draft version two “through studying geography, people of all ages begin to appreciate how places and landscapes are formed, how people and environments interact, what consequences arise from our everyday decisions, and what a diverse range of cultures and societies exist and interconnect”. Essentially, this communicates the big ideas. • HOW IT IS TAUGHT. A sentence or two outlining the APPROACHES in the subject that are distinctive. E.g. fieldwork, GIS, enquiring approach, experiential learning, active participation. • A ‘CONCLUSION’ that reaffirms that value of geography, especially to the future well being and career of a pupil.
New Draft Importance statement – hook line We live together in a beautiful, yet complex world, which is, continuously changing and challenging. The study of geography helps us to make sense of this dynamic world and prepares us for a role as global citizens in the 21st century.
New Draft Importance statement – what is taught Geography is the subject which stimulates an interest in and a sense of wonder about places. Through Geography we begin to question how places and landscapes are formed, how people and environment interact, what consequences arise from our everyday decisions and how a diverse range of cultures and societies interact and are interconnected. Geography builds on our own experiences to investigate at all scales from the personal to the global.
New Draft Importance statement – how it is taught Geography is studied through enquiry, which encourages us to question, investigate and think critically about issues affecting our lives for the present and future. Fieldwork is essential. In Geography we use maps, visual images and new technologies including Geographical Information Systems to obtain and present information.
New Draft Importance statement - conclusion Geography inspires us to think about our own place in the world, our values and rights. It helps us consider our responsibilities to other people and to the environment in helping to ensure the sustainability of our planet. These transferable geographical skills help to equip us for lifelong learning as responsible global citizens.
Fundamental ideas and concepts Key Processes Curriculum development guidance WHAT MIGHT GO INTO THE PoS? importance statement aims etc
Ways forward Phase 1 • Participation in the ‘curriculum futures’ debate • Capturing and sharing innovation Phase 2 • Establish a network of co-developers • A curriculum “specification” or blueprint • Development tools and case studies • Quality assurance mechanisms – a kitemark? quality/impact not coverage/delivery • Pilots and field trials – promoting innovation and building the evidence base High quality, world class curriculum design • Clear design principles • A broad definition of ‘curriculum’ • Aims:outcomes driven • National, local and personalised aspects • Dimensions or areas of learning – personal, skills, ethical, cultural… • Approaches to learning – enquiry, experiential, practical • Evaluated against a balanced scorecard • Sustaining and self-renewing
Our curriculum conversation • What are we trying to achieve through the curriculum? • How do we best organise learning to achieve these aims? • How effectively are we evaluating the impact of the curriculum and continuously improving it? Three key questions
Purpose of the subject criteria review • The main aspects under consideration in the current review are: • A reduction in the burden of assessment by reducing the number of units. For the majority of subjects, this will entail a reduction to 4 units. Fewer assessment units will enable each unit to be more holistic, less mechanistic and more supportive of extended writing. • A review of the necessity for coursework as an element of the assessment. It will be included in A levels only where it is the soundest method of assessment and provided that it makes clear how reliability and fairness are secured. • The introduction of AEA-style assessments to all A levels. AEA-style material will encourage teaching that challenges students and promotes independent thought and learning. • A clarification of synoptic assessment. We are reviewing what synoptic assessment entails in each subject and are ensuring that it will encourage the development of a holistic understanding of the subject. Clearer understanding of synoptic assessment will also support learning and understanding.
What’s wrong with existing geography criteria… • Pretty impenetrable text…. wordy not helpful • Reads as a list of prescribed content rather than a framework for interpretation • Repetitive/distinctiveness of AS and A level not clear • Sounds inhibiting rather than enlightening • No promotion of newer aspects of geography
Subject Criteria as framework from which Awarding Bodies design and develop specs. So subject criteria need: • to clarify that this framework should be used for design purposes • provide clear direction about kind of geography appropriate to 21st century • be clear about nature or progression required from GCSE etc • need give strong steer to include new geography
Draft Geography A Level Criteria Online consultation http://www.qca.org.uk/12086_16132.html 10th April – 89 responses
Geography Pilot: purposes • to provide lively and innovative geography courses for 14-16 year olds that reflect the needs of students and current thinking in the subject • to offer a hybrid model for the geography-related area of qualifications which allows students to follow academic (general) and/or vocational/applied pathways within the qualifications
Geography pilot: the remit for the core • Half a GCSE - GCSE Short Course; • ‘Geography for citizens’ • Emphasis on links between geographical learning and pupils’ own lives • Reflecting changes in the subject • Focus on organising concepts of uneven development, interdependence, futures, sustainability, globalisation • Encouraging different learning styles – less content • Innovative forms of assessment
The geography pilot: assessment • Short course – 67% external (one paper with pre-release material and a decision-making/problem solving flavour); 33% internal (portfolio of three short items – one on each theme) • Full course – 33% external; 67% internal – ie optional units all internally assessed by the most appropriate means Find out more at http://www.geography.org.uk/projects/pilotgcse/
Evaluation questionnaire Why offer the pilot GCSE in Geography?
Evaluation questionnaire We asked respondents to tell us about the teacher assessment options they offered. 1.) Coastal Management (72.7% of respondents offered it) reasons for offering this included the relevance to the area and it’s incorporation into fieldwork trips 2.) Geography in the news (54.5%) offered because of its relevance, flexibility and pupil interest; 3.) Travel and Tourism destinations (also 54.5%) offered primarily due to pupil interest and access to resources
Remit • Following publication of the 14-19 White Paper, QCA received a remit to review coursework in terms of consistency of approach, fairness and cumulative burden. • During 2004, QCA conducted a review of the reliability of GCE and GCSE coursework. The review focused on current specifications but its conclusions are relevant to future developments http://www.qca.org.uk/15525.html
What is the product about ? QCA has developed new materials to help teachers identify, track and enhance pupil progress in the foundation subjects. Teacher assessment activities are initially available for art and design, design and technology and history at key stages 1 to 3, and for ICT at key stages 1 and 2, with geography in key stage 1-3 to follow. This new initiative from QCA illustrates assessment as an integral part of teaching and learning across the key stages.
Pulling together advice & guidance http://www.qca.org.uk/geography/innovating/ http://www.ncaction.org.uk/ http://www.geography.org.uk/ Pulling together http://www.standards.dfes.gov.uk/keystage3/?version=1 http://www.standards.dfes.gov.uk/schemes2/geography/?view=get http://www.geography.org.uk/eyprimary/squareone/activities