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Standard Template Library

Standard Template Library

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Standard Template Library

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  1. Standard Template Library • Programming paradigm: generic programming • the decomposition of programs into components which may be developed separately and combined arbitrarily, subject only to well-defined interfaces. • lots of orthogonality

  2. Components • Containers • Iterators • Algorithms

  3. Example 1 // Simple STL vector program from Ira Pohl, UC Santa Cruz #include <iostream> #include <vector> using namespace std; int main () { vector<int> v(100); // 100 is vector's size for (int i = 0; i < 100; ++i) v[i] = i; for (vector<int>::iterator p = v.begin(); p != v.end(); ++p) cout << *p << '\t'; cout << endl; }

  4. Example 2 #include <iostream> #include <list> // list container #include <numeric> // for accumulate using namespace std; // Using the list container int main() { double w[4] = { 0.9, 0.8, 88, -99.99 }; list<double> z; for (int i = 0; i < 4; ++i) z.push_front(w[i]); print(z); z.sort(); print(z); cout << "sum is " << accumulate(z.begin(), z.end(), 0.0) << endl; }

  5. Containers • Sequential – ordered by sequence • Vector – dynamic array • List – linked list • Deque – double-ended queue • Associative – use keys for ordering • Sets – stores unique keys • Multisets – allows multiple copies of key • Maps – associates unique keys and values • Multimaps – allows multiple copies of key

  6. Common container interfaces • Constructors • Element access • Element insertion • Element deletion • Destructor • Iterators

  7. Useful definitions and members • CON::iterator • CON::value_type • c.begin() • c.end() • c.size() • c.empty()

  8. Useful sequence members • c.insert(w_it, v) – inserts v before w_it • c.insert(w_it,v,n) – inserts n copies of v before w_it • c.insert(w_it,b_it,e_it) – inserts b_it to e_it before w_it • c.erase(w_it) – erases element at w_it • c.erase(b_it,e_it) – erases b_it to e_it

  9. Useful Associative Container Definitions, Members • ASSOC::key_type • c.find(k) – returns iterator to element with key k or c.end() • c.count(k) – returns number of elements with key k

  10. Example 3 - Map //Associative Containers - looking up ages #include <iostream> #include <map> #include <string> using namespace std; int main() { map<string, int, less<string> > name_age; name_age["Pohl,Laura"] = 12; name_age["Dolsberry,Betty"] = 39; name_age["Pohl,Tanya"] = 14; cout << "Laura is " << name_age["Pohl,Laura"] << " years old." << endl; }

  11. Example 4 - Multiset #include <iostream> #include <set> //used for both set and multiset #include <vector> using namespace std; enum vegetables { broccoli, tomato, carrot, lettuce, beet, radish, potato}; int main() { vector<vegetables> my_diet(100); vector<vegetables>::iterator pos; vegetables veg; multiset<vegetables, greater<vegetables> > v_food; multiset<vegetables, greater< vegetables> >::iterator vpos; for (pos = my_diet.begin(); pos != my_diet.end(); ++pos) { *pos = static_cast<vegetables>(rand() % 7); v_food.insert(*pos); } for (veg = broccoli; veg <= potato; ++veg) cout << v_food.count(veg) << endl; }

  12. Example 5- Container Adaptors //Adapt a stack from a vector #include <iostream> #include <stack> #include <vector> #include <string> using namespace std; int main() { stack<string, vector<string> > str_stack; string quote[3] = { “Let’s all visit\n", “Greensburg\n",“Bill Watts\n" }; for (int i = 0; i < 3; ++i) str_stack.push(quote[i]); while (!str_stack.empty()) { cout << str_stack.top(); str_stack.pop(); } }

  13. Algorithms • Sorting • Nonmutating sequence algorithms • Mutating sequence algorithms • Numerical algorithms

  14. Example 6 - Quicksort //Using sort() from STL #include <iostream> #include <algorithm> using namespace std; const int N = 5; int main() { int d[N], i, *e = d + N; for (i = 0; i < N; ++i) d[i] = rand(); sort(d, e); for (i = 0; i < N; ++i) cout << d[i] << '\t'; }

  15. Other useful sort-related algorithms • binary_search(b,e,t) – true if t is found in b to e • min_element(b,e) – returns iterator for minimum element in b to e • includes(b1,e1,b2,e2) – returns true if second sequence is subset of first

  16. Example 7 - find //Use of the find function #include <iostream> #include <algorithm> using namespace std; int main() { string words[5] = { "my", "hop", "mop", "hope", "cope"}; string* where; where = find(words, words + 5, "hop"); cout << *++where << endl; //mop sort(words, words + 5); where = find(words, words + 5, "hop"); cout << *++where << endl; //hope }

  17. Useful non-mutating sequence algorithms • for_each(b,e,f) – applies function f to each value in b to e • count_if(b,e,p,n) – returns in n the count of elements that make predicate p true • equal(b1,e1,b2) – returns true if sequences match

  18. Useful mutating sequence algorithms • replace(b1,e1,t1,t2) – replaces t1 by t2 if t1 occurs in range b1 to e1 • replace_if(b1,e1,p,t2) – replaces elements in b1 to e1 that satisfy predicate p with t2

  19. Function objects • Classes/structs that have operator() defined template <class Number> struct notZero : public unary_function<Number,bool> { bool operator()(Number x) const { return x != (Number) 0; }