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Structure Determines Properties!

Structure Determines Properties!

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Structure Determines Properties!

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  1. Chapter 10 Chemical Bonding II Structure Determines Properties! • properties of molecular substances depend on the structure of the molecule • the structure includes many factors, including: • the skeletal arrangement of the atoms • the kind of bonding between the atoms • ionic, polar covalent, or covalent • the shape of the molecule • bonding theory should allow you to predict the shapes of molecules Tro, Chemistry: A Molecular Approach

  2. Valence Bond Theory • Linus Pauling and others applied the principles of quantum mechanics to molecules • they reasoned that bonds between atoms would arise when the orbitals on those atoms interacted to make a bond • the kind of interaction depends on whether the orbitals align along the axis between the nuclei, or outside the axis Tro, Chemistry: A Molecular Approach

  3. Orbital Interaction • as two atoms approached, the partially filled or empty valence atomic orbitals on the atoms would interact to form molecular orbitals • the molecular orbitals would be more stable than the separate atomic orbitals because they would contain paired electrons shared by both atoms • the interaction energy between atomic orbitals is negative when the interacting atomic orbitals contain a total of 2 electrons Tro, Chemistry: A Molecular Approach

  4. H ↑↓ H-S bond ↑ 1s ↑↓ ↑ ↑ ↑↓ S ↑ 3s 3p 1s ↑↓ H-S bond H Orbital Diagram for the Formation of H2S + Predicts Bond Angle = 90° Actual Bond Angle = 92° Tro, Chemistry: A Molecular Approach

  5. Valence Bond Theory - Hybridization • one of the issues that arose was that the number of partially filled or empty atomic orbital did not predict the number of bonds or orientation of bonds • C = 2s22px12py12pz0 would predict 2 or 3 bonds that are 90° apart, rather than 4 bonds that are 109.5° apart • to adjust for these inconsistencies, it was postulated that the valence atomic orbitals could hybridizebefore bonding took place • one hybridization of C is to mix all the 2s and 2p orbitals to get 4 orbitals that point at the corners of a tetrahedron Tro, Chemistry: A Molecular Approach

  6. Valence Bond TheoryMain Concepts • the valence electrons in an atom reside in the quantum mechanical atomic orbitals or hybrid orbitals • a chemical bond results when these atomic orbitals overlap and there is a total of 2 electrons in the new molecular orbital • the electrons must be spin paired • the shape of the molecule is determined by the geometry of the overlapping orbitals Tro, Chemistry: A Molecular Approach

  7. Hybridization • some atoms hybridize their orbitals to maximize bonding • hybridizing is mixing different types of orbitals to make a new set of degenerate orbitals • sp, sp2, sp3, sp3d, sp3d2 • more bonds = more full orbitals = more stability • better explain observed shapes of molecules • same type of atom can have different hybridization depending on the compound • C = sp, sp2, sp3 Tro, Chemistry: A Molecular Approach

  8. Hybrid Orbitals • H cannot hybridize!! • the number of standard atomic orbitals combined = the number of hybrid orbitals formed • the number and type of standard atomic orbitals combined determines the shape of the hybrid orbitals • the particular kind of hybridization that occurs is the one that yields the lowest overall energy for the molecule • in other words, you have to know the structure of the molecule beforehand in order to predict the hybridization Tro, Chemistry: A Molecular Approach

  9. Orbital Diagrams with Hybridization • place electrons into hybrid and unhybridized valence orbitals as if all the orbitals have equal energy • when bonding, s bonds form between hybrid orbitals and p bonds form between unhybridized orbitals that are parallel Tro, Chemistry: A Molecular Approach

  10. Carbon Hybridizations Unhybridized    2p 2s sp hybridized     2sp 2p sp2 hybridized     2sp2 2p sp3 hybridized     Tro, Chemistry: A Molecular Approach 2sp3

  11. sp3 Hybridization • atom with 4 areas of electrons • tetrahedral geometry • 109.5° angles between hybrid orbitals • atom uses hybrid orbitals for all bonds and lone pairs Tro, Chemistry: A Molecular Approach

  12. Tro, Chemistry: A Molecular Approach

  13.  sp3 Hybridized AtomsOrbital Diagrams Unhybridized atom sp3 hybridized atom C        2p 2sp3 2s N        2p 2sp3 2s Tro, Chemistry: A Molecular Approach

  14. Methane Formation with sp3 C Tro, Chemistry: A Molecular Approach

  15. Ammonia Formation with sp3 N Tro, Chemistry: A Molecular Approach

  16.  Practice - Draw the Orbital Diagram for the sp3 Hybridization of Each Atom Unhybridized atom sp3 hybridized atom Cl         3p 3sp3 3s O        2p 2sp3 2s Tro, Chemistry: A Molecular Approach

  17. Types of Bonds • a sigma (s) bond results when the bonding atomic orbitals point along the axis connecting the two bonding nuclei • either standard atomic orbitals or hybrids • s-to-s, p-to-p, hybrid-to-hybrid, s-to-hybrid, etc. • a pi (p) bond results when the bonding atomic orbitals are parallel to each other and perpendicular to the axis connecting the two bonding nuclei • between unhybridized parallel p orbitals • the interaction between parallel orbitals is not as strong as between orbitals that point at each other; therefore s bonds are stronger than p bonds Tro, Chemistry: A Molecular Approach

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  20. Bond Rotation • because orbitals that form the s bond point along the internuclear axis, rotation around that bond does not require breaking the interaction between the orbitals • but the orbitals that form the p bond interact above and below the internuclear axis, so rotation around the axis requires the breaking of the interaction between the orbitals Tro, Chemistry: A Molecular Approach

  21. Tro, Chemistry: A Molecular Approach

  22. Tro, Chemistry: A Molecular Approach

  23. sp2 • atom with 3 areas of electrons • trigonal planar system • C = trigonal planar • N = trigonal bent • O = “linear” • 120° bond angles • flat • atom uses hybrid orbitals for s bonds and lone pairs, uses nonhybridized p orbital for p bond Tro, Chemistry: A Molecular Approach

  24. Tro, Chemistry: A Molecular Approach

  25. + s p sp2 sp2 Hybrid orbitals overlap to form s bond Unhybridized p orbitals overlap to form p bond Tro, Chemistry: A Molecular Approach

  26. Tro, Chemistry: A Molecular Approach

  27.  sp2 Hybridized AtomsOrbital Diagrams Unhybridized atom sp2 hybridized atom C 3 s 1 p        2p 2sp2 2p 2s N 2 s 1 p        2p 2sp2 2p 2s Tro, Chemistry: A Molecular Approach

  28.  Practice - Draw the Orbital Diagram for the sp2 Hybridization of Each Atom. How many s and p bonds would you expect each to form? Unhybridized atom sp2 hybridized atom B 3 s 0 p      2p 2sp2 2p 2s O 1 s 1 p        2p 2sp2 2p 2s Tro, Chemistry: A Molecular Approach

  29. p s p sp • atom with 2 areas of electrons • linear shape • 180° bond angle • atom uses hybrid orbitals for s bonds or lone pairs, uses nonhybridized p orbitals for p bonds Tro, Chemistry: A Molecular Approach

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  32.  sp Hybridized AtomsOrbital Diagrams Unhybridized atom sp hybridized atom C 2s 2p        2p 2sp 2p 2s N 1s 2p        2p 2sp 2p 2s Tro, Chemistry: A Molecular Approach

  33. sp3d • atom with 5 areas of electrons around it • trigonal bipyramid shape • See-Saw, T-Shape, Linear • 120° & 90° bond angles • use empty d orbitals from valence shell • d orbitals can be used to make p bonds Tro, Chemistry: A Molecular Approach

  34. sp3d Hybridized AtomsOrbital Diagrams Unhybridized atom sp3d hybridized atom     P      3p 3sp3d 3s 3d     S      3p 3s 3sp3d 3d (non-hybridizing d orbitals not shown) Tro, Chemistry: A Molecular Approach

  35. sp3d2 • atom with 6 areas of electrons around it • octahedral shape • Square Pyramid, Square Planar • 90° bond angles • use empty d orbitals from valence shell • d orbitals can be used to make p bonds Tro, Chemistry: A Molecular Approach

  36. ↑↓ ↑↓ ↑↓ ↑ ↑↓ ↑ ↑ ↑ ↑ ↑ 5p 5s 5d 5sp3d2 sp3d2 Hybridized AtomsOrbital Diagrams Unhybridized atom sp3d2 hybridized atom ↑↓ ↑↓ ↑ ↑ S ↑ ↑ ↑ ↑ ↑ ↑ 3p 3s 3d 3sp3d2 I (non-hybridizing d orbitals not shown) Tro, Chemistry: A Molecular Approach

  37. Tro, Chemistry: A Molecular Approach

  38. Example - Predict the Hybridization of All the Atoms in H3BO3 H = can’t hybridize B = 3 electron groups = sp2 O = 4 electron groups = sp3 Tro, Chemistry: A Molecular Approach

  39. Practice - Predict the Hybridization and Bonding Scheme of All the Atoms in NClO N = 3 electron groups = sp2 O = 3 electron groups = sp2 Cl = 4 electron groups = sp3 Tro, Chemistry: A Molecular Approach

  40. Predicting Hybridization and Bonding Scheme • Start by drawing the Lewis Structure • Use VSEPR Theory to predict the electron group geometry around each central atom • Use Table 10.3 to select the hybridization scheme that matches the electron group geometry • Sketch the atomic and hybrid orbitals on the atoms in the molecule, showing overlap of the appropriate orbitals • Label the bonds as s or p Tro, Chemistry: A Molecular Approach

  41. Ex 10.8 – Predict the hybridization and bonding scheme for CH3CHO Tro, Chemistry: A Molecular Approach

  42. Problems with Valence Bond Theory • VB theory predicts many properties better than Lewis Theory • bonding schemes, bond strengths, bond lengths, bond rigidity • however, there are still many properties of molecules it doesn’t predict perfectly • magnetic behavior of O2 Tro, Chemistry: A Molecular Approach

  43. Molecular Orbital Theory • in MO theory, we apply Schrödinger’s wave equation to the molecule to calculate a set of molecular orbitals • in practice, the equation solution is estimated • we start with good guesses from our experience as to what the orbital should look like • then test and tweak the estimate until the energy of the orbital is minimized • in this treatment, the electrons belong to the whole molecule – so the orbitals belong to the whole molecule • unlike VB Theory where the atomic orbitals still exist in the molecule Tro, Chemistry: A Molecular Approach

  44. LCAO • the simplest guess starts with the atomic orbitals of the atoms adding together to make molecular orbitals – this is called the Linear Combination of Atomic Orbitals method • weighted sum • because the orbitals are wave functions, the waves can combine either constructively or destructively Tro, Chemistry: A Molecular Approach

  45. Molecular Orbitals • when the wave functions combine constructively, the resulting molecular orbital has less energy than the original atomic orbitals – it is called a Bonding Molecular Orbital • s, p • most of the electron density between the nuclei • when the wave functions combine destructively, the resulting molecular orbital has more energy than the original atomic orbitals – it is called a Antibonding Molecular Orbital • s*, p* • most of the electron density outside the nuclei • nodes between nuclei Tro, Chemistry: A Molecular Approach

  46. Interaction of 1s Orbitals Tro, Chemistry: A Molecular Approach

  47. Molecular Orbital Theory • Electrons in bonding MOs are stabilizing • Lower energy than the atomic orbitals • Electrons in anti-bonding MOs are destabilizing • Higher in energy than atomic orbitals • Electron density located outside the internuclear axis • Electrons in anti-bonding orbitals cancel stability gained by electrons in bonding orbitals Tro, Chemistry: A Molecular Approach

  48. MO and Properties • Bond Order = difference between number of electrons in bonding and antibonding orbitals • only need to consider valence electrons • may be a fraction • higher bond order = stronger and shorter bonds • if bond order = 0, then bond is unstable compared to individual atoms - no bond will form. • A substance will be paramagnetic if its MO diagram has unpaired electrons • if all electrons paired it is diamagnetic Tro, Chemistry: A Molecular Approach

  49. Dihydrogen, H2 Molecular Orbitals Hydrogen Atomic Orbital Hydrogen Atomic Orbital s* 1s 1s s Since more electrons are in bonding orbitals than are in antibonding orbitals, net bonding interaction Tro, Chemistry: A Molecular Approach

  50. H2 s* Antibonding MO LUMO s bonding MO HOMO Tro, Chemistry: A Molecular Approach