Final Exam Review World History A
Ancient Greece and Rome • Ancient Greece and Rome influenced Western political and social thought through the ideas of direct and representative democracy. • One way classical Athens influenced Western political thought was through the idea that individual achievement, dignity and worth are of great importance. • What is one modern country you know that practices Western political thought and has a strong belief in individualism? Good guess!
Ancient Greece and Rome • Plato was a famous Greek philosopher who stated his philosophical ideas in his work The Republic. • Plato believed that individuals should live in a just and rational state. • Romans were great law codifiers. Rome’s first code of law was called the Twelve Tables. They also influenced American ideas of representative democracy.
How do Judeo Christian Ideas differ from Greco Roman Ideas? • Judeo Christian ideas come from the ideas of two major world religions which are Judaism and Christianity. • Jewish and Christian ideas differ from Greco-Roman ideas when it comes to their belief in one God also known as monotheism. • The other major world religion that is monotheistic is Islam. Muslims are followers of Islam. • Judeo Christian and Greco Roman ideas have heavily influence Western political thought.
Enlightenment Philosophers • The Enlightenment also known as the “Age of Reason” was a cultural and social movement of intellectuals in the 17th and 18th century that started in Europe and moved to the United States. Famous Enlightenment philosophers • John Locke- His ideas of natural rights and the pursuit of life, liberty and property heavily influenced Thomas Jefferson and the Declaration of Independence. • Charles Louis Montesquieu- He held a strong belief that government should have checks and balances to avoid tyranny. • Jean- Jacques Rousseau- Society should be governed by a social contract.
Democratic Revolutions What would make someone willing to participate in a violent , or peaceful overthrow of their government? England • The Magna Carta(1215)- This document limited the power of the monarch. • The Glorious Revolution (1688)-Invasion of England by William of Orange and the overthrow of King James II. It was a revolution with almost no bloodshed. A major result was the English Bill of Rights. United States • The American Revolution (1775-1783) resulted in the United States declaring independence from Britain and the drafting of the Declaration of Independence which was written by Thomas Jefferson. • Who inspired Thomas Jefferson? • What is the date of American Independence?
Democratic Revolutions France • The French Revolution (1789-1799) was a bloody revolution against King Louis XVI and the French monarchy. • The French National Assembly swore the Tennis Court Oath which was a vow to continue to meet until they had produced a French constitution. • One of the accomplishments of the French Revolution was a document based upon the Declaration of Independence called the Declaration of the Rights of Man and Citizens which gave the freedom of speech and press but did not grant equal rights to women. • In order to create a new order that reflected a belief in reason, the National Convention pursued a policy of dechristianization and went as far as to adopt a new calendar.
The French Revolution and Napoleon Bonaparte Napoleon Bonaparte was a military commander who took over after the French Revolution and made France a major power in Europe. He introduced reforms such as a public school system, transportation options such as canals and roads and the Napoleonic Code. French Revolution
The Industrial Revolution • England was the first country to industrialize in the 1700’s because of improved food supplies, a large domestic labor force, abundant money supply and their use of slave labor. • The Industrial Revolution created new jobs in railroad construction, coal mining and factory production. Many farming jobs and cottage industries were lost to factory work. • The production of cotton cloth was one of the first industries affected by the Industrial Revolution. • The textile industry met its last challenge to full mechanization with the development of the steam engine which was improved by James Watt. • The Industrial Revolution had positive impacts such as improved technology and the emergence of the middle class, and negative impacts such as child labor and pollution.
Imperialism • Imperialism- A stronger more advanced country taking over a weaker less advanced country for economic gain, resources or to spread religious ideology. • European countries such as Britain, France, Belgium and Germany as well as the United States and Japan practiced imperialism. • Countries or regions that suffered from colonization and imperialism were Africa, Southeast Asia, China, India, Latin America and the Philippines. • European countries often justified practicing imperialism with the belief that they had the moral responsibility to civilize primitive people. The White Mans Burden
Imperialism in Africa • In the 1800’s European powers carved up the African continent. By 1914 almost the entire African continent had been claimed by European powers. • Natural resources were exploited in Africa, especially in the Congo, at the expense of locals who were treated brutally in the European quest for land and resources. • Ethiopians resisted imperialism and did not accept European rule and conquest. • Imperialism has been a major reason for the extreme poverty in modern day Africa.
Imperialism in Asia United States • The United States practiced imperialism in Cuba, Puerto Rico and the Phillipines. President McKinley decided to turn the Philippines into an American colony because it was a convenient point for trade with China. • Under the pressure of Commodore Matthew Perry’s fleet, Japan signed the treaty of Kangawa and opened up trade relations with the U.S. The British in China • Areas of China were occupied by Britain and in order to adjust the trade imbalance Britain began shipping opium grown in India directly to China. This was a major cause of the Opium Wars between China and Britain. • Extraterritoriality was the idea of Europeans living by their own laws in China. The British in India • In 1857 a growing Indian distrust of the British led to the First War of Independence which the British also called the Sepoy Mutiny. • Zamindars were the local officials who collected taxes for the British. • Mohandas Gandhi set up a nonviolent revolution with the goal of forcing the British to aid the poor and grant Independence to India. It worked!
Causes of World War I • There were 4 M.A.I.N causes of World War I (1914-1919). Militarism ( the aggressive preparation for war), Alliances, Imperialism and Nationalism. • The assassination of Archduke Franz Ferdinand of Austria set off a chain of alliances that led to World War I. • Austira-Hungary, Bulgaria, Germany and the Ottoman Empire became known as the Central Powers and France, Britain, Russian and the United States were part of the Allied Powers. • World War I was considered a total war because it involved a complete mobilization of resources and people from around the world. • The United States decided to join the war because of the Germans unrestricted use of submarine warfare and the sinking of the Lusitania.
World War I • The Western Front was characterized by trench warfare that kept both sides virtually in the same position for four years. • The German military plan that was devised by General von Schlieffen called for a war of two fronts. The Outcomes of the War • The American president Wilson argued at the Paris Peace Conference for a League of Nations to prevent future wars. • The Treaty of Versailles was created which put an end to World War I and forced Germany to may war reparations, give up land and return Alsace and Lorraine to France. • The Treaty of Versailles and the global depression will be leading us into our next major global conflict called World War II.
Russia and World War I • The Romanov dynasty had ruled Russia for over 300 years. Czar Nicholas II was the emperor of Russia and brought Russian into World War I which was a very unpopular war. Even Kerensky and the provisional government made the fatal mistake of continuing the war. • In an attempt to end Russia’s involvement in WWI, Lenin signed the Treaty of Brest-Livotsk with Germany, which gave up much Russian territory. • Vladimir Lenin was the revolutionary leader of the Bolsheviks who embraced communism and was inspired by Karl Marx, the author of the Communist Manifesto. They eventually would overthrow the Russian government and institute the communist revolution.
Totalitarian Governments • Totalitarian governments existed in Italy under Benito Mussolini, the Soviet Union under Joseph Stalin and Germany under Adolph Hitler. • Fascism- A fascist government is one in which a strong central government is led by a dictatorial leader. • Adolph Hitler blamed the Jews for their economic woes, unemployment and depression and passed laws excluding Jews from German citizenship which were called the “Nuremberg Laws”. He also instigated Kristallnacht which was a destructive rampage against German Jews led by Nazi’s. • Hitler’s goal was to create the Third Reich, or the German Empire and to completely wipe out Jewish people from the earth. • Hitler attempted to end economic woes in Germany through public works projects , and rearmament programs.