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Unit 6 Part I

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Unit 6 Part I

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  1. Unit 6 Part I Absolutism and Scientific Revolution Chapters 5 and 6

  2. Absolute Rule Absolutism: Period when a series of European monarchs who ruled alone and increased the power of their central government

  3. Absolute Rulers: • Centralization of power • Many believed in concept of divine right!

  4. England’s Absolute Monarchy Fight for the throne—Wars of the Roses Lancaster (Red) vs. York (White) Henry Tudor (Red) wins = Henry VII

  5. Under Elizabeth • England was invaded by Philip II b/c he had grown impatient waiting for England to become Catholic again.

  6. 1588 Sp. Armada-”Prot. Wind” • Elizabeth was successful in defeating the Spanish Armada!

  7. Queen Elizabeth I • Died with no heirs • Cousins in Scotland – Stuart Dynasty—now begins

  8. James I 1603-1625 Tensions with Parliament – Divine Right Remembered for giving the Puritans an English translation of the Bible (King James Version)

  9. Magna Carta • King John was forced to sign this document in 1215! • Limited the king’s power & protected the baron’s rights

  10. Charles I –1625-1649 • Son of James I • Divine Right • Dissolved Parliament for 11 years

  11. Irritated the Puritans –Many left=Great Migration • Ireland Revolted, Scotland invaded-Charles needed Parliament

  12. Charles I cont… English Civil War—Charles led an army (Cavaliers) and invaded Parliament Cromwell (Puritan) leader of the Roundheads (supporters of Parliament) defeated the royalists/Cavaliers twice

  13. Invasion of Parliament

  14. Royalists vs Puritans • Charles I vs Oliver Cromwell • Charles I tried for treason and beheaded!!

  15. Oliver Cromwell

  16. Oliver Cromwell-1653-1658 Tried to establish a Republic with a constitution (people would elect leader) Eventually dissolves Parliament—ruled as military dictator

  17. Charles II 1660-1685 • Restoration!!! Restored the Monarchy • Gave in to Parliament b/c of his Dad • Got New York from the Dutch

  18. James II 1685-1688 • Catholic—remarries has a Catholic son • His daughter—Mary is Protestant

  19. Wanted Absolute Authority • Eventually fled the country after invasion by William of Orange (son-in-law)

  20. William and Mary1688-1694 (Mary) 1702 (William) James II was not liked, but they could not execute him…they knew when he died Mary (daughter/Protestant) would inherit the thrown. His son would rule first (Catholic) Parliament decided to invite Mary and William (husband) to invade country 1688

  21. Glorious Revolution 1688—no bloodshed—James II fled

  22. William and Mary cont… • First dual monarchy • They work well with Parliament and accept limited power (Limited Constitutional Monarchy-monarchs power limited by a constitution) • Parliament will pass many laws—protecting the rights of individuals

  23. English Parliament Habeas Corpus—individual has the right to be seen by a judge w/in a reasonable amount of time either to be released or charged w/a crime

  24. English Bill of Rights-monarch could not interfere in the elections or operations of Parliament …and some basic rights to citizens

  25. English Parliament cont… Act of Toleration-Religious freedom to dissenters (not Anglican)

  26. 1707 Act of Union—England and Scotland join together

  27. Act of Settlement—next ruler will have to be Protestant

  28. Anne (sister of Mary) 1701-1714 • Estab. A cabinet (group of advisors) • Leader of the Cabinet=Prime Minister

  29. Anne con’d • Act of Union (1707) Joined Scotland and England into the United Kingdom Last of the Stuart dynasty

  30. Away from England Colonies French and Indian War American Revolution

  31. French & Indian War

  32. The American Revolution

  33. Treaty of Paris Proclamation of 1763 • Treaty of Paris

  34. Treaty of Paris Proclamation of 1763 • Ended the American Revolutionary War • King George III of England forbid American settlers to go beyond the line along the Appalachians. (After England claimed the French lands from the French and Indian War)

  35. France • Mid-1500s—France destroyed by religious conflicts btwn Huguenots and Catholics

  36. St. Bartholomew’s Day King of France attempted to kill the leader’s of the Huguenots…once the killing started mobs of Catholic Parisians started to began a general massacre of Huguenots. (the king’s sister, Margaret, had just married Henry of Navarre—the leader of the Huguenots)

  37. 1589—Henry of Navarre became Henry IV (Bourbon) a Protestant wins the throne helps to resolve chaos in France

  38. Converts to Catholicism • Edict of Nantes: Allowed the Huguenots to practice their own religion—Religious Toleration

  39. France cont… • 1610—Louis XIII • 9 years old • Appointed Cardinal Richelieu as chief minister

  40. Strengthened the gov’t • Destroyed power of the nobles & Huguenots • Hand picked his own successor – Mazarin

  41. (wanted to turn France into an absolute monarchy and make it the strongest European power)

  42. France cont… • 1643—Louis XIV—72 years of rule • 5 years old with Mazarin as chief minister until 1661 (23 yrs old then)

  43. Rebellion broke out when he was a child and vowed to never let it happen again

  44. Believed in divine right Never used the Estates-General (similar to Parliament) Took the sun as his symbol—sun=center SUN KING=center of French nation

  45. France cont… • Louis XIV • Strengthened the gov’t • Tax collections—intendants (middle class) • Army=strongest in Europe • Diversified economy: Home-taxes-wealthiest state in Europe • Colonies-Furs

  46. France cont… • Louis XIV • Extravagant Lifestyle • Palace of Versailles (p. 141) • Sponsored the Arts