“The function of leadership then becomes the creation of systems, structures, and environments where … interaction and learning can occur” - Allen, Bordas, Hickman, Matusak, Sorenson, & Whitmire, (1998) Leadership in the Twenty-First Century
KEYWORDS Higher education leadership Effective leadership skills Transformational leadership Academic leadership Positive leadership Professional leadership practices
LEADERSHIP IN HEI Interact with a variety of professionals Key to look at all aspects of leadership – autocratic, bureaucratic, transactional, transformational, etc Transformational leadership (Davies, 2009) as one of the effective leadership in HEI , includes collaboration and mentorship Components of vision, voices and values (integrating a shared vision of change, empowering voices in a collaborative community and reflection on vision value.
Criteria for Leadership in Sustainability • Economic Criteria • Economic Stewardship • Regional Economic Development • Social • Employee Well-Being • Quality of Life in Communities • Business Ethics • Environmental • Environmental Impact Minimization • Natural Resource Protection
Sustainability Elements Endowment Investments Land Use Regional Economic Development Operations Champions Climate Commitment & Energy • Green Building Oversight Committee • Transportation Impact Mitigation Strategies • Green Purchasing Task Force • Presidents Climate Commitment Implementation Committee • Comprehensive Master Plan • Campus Life Green Team Learning Laboratory & Model Campus Built Environment Food & Water Transportation Waste & Pollution Materials
"...the challenges facing our world are great. The time to address and ameliorate them is short. The opportunity for action is now. And the agent of positive change – perhaps more than ever before in our history – can be Cornell." President Skorton 19 October 2007 www.sustainablecampus.cornell.edu
Challenges Facing Higher Education Administration • We are asked to cut overhead costs without increasing business risk • We are asked to reduce central administrative costs while increasing services • We have been on a decade long quest to increase employee productivity • We must recruit a new generation of administrative leadership in a time of increasing market pressures
THEORIES OF HEI Structural theories Political theories System theories
STRUCTURAL THEORIES Structural assumptions – to understand organizations we have to examine the organizational structure Organizations as hierarchical structure Universities as a series of concentric circles Structural functionalism – series of interrelated parts
STRUCTURAL THEORIES Organization exists to accomplish goals Structural form can be designed to fit particular circumstances Organizations work most effective under norms of rationality Specialization permits expertise and performance Coordination and control essential for effectiveness Organizational problems because of inappropriate structure
STRUCTURAL THEORIES Dual structure in universities – academic and non academic Structure dominates organizations Relate universities to bureaucratic organizations
POLITICAL THEORIES Political assumptions – three related theories Conflict theory Community power theory Interest group theory
EDU5823/Models Political Model of universities • Politics is basically a process of interaction among contending groups to acquire domination and resources in a social system. Power and control are the objects of obsession. • Interaction strategies include association, coalition, fragmentation, exploitation, manipulation, aggression, intimidation, etc. • The resources are money, space, support, visibility, security, fame, information, jobs, etc .
EDU5823/Models Political Model of universities • Underlying theories - conflict theory, community power theory, interest group theory Characteristics - political cycles - power struggle • dynamic process of political activities
EDU5823/Models Political Model of universities • University as a political system - political stage exists in universities - existence of various groups, competing views, diverse interests - university constitution permit functional representation - Board of directors, Senate, Faculty, Committee, Associations - power struggle between groups - appointment to key posts to serve political interests - academic representation versus lay-representation
EDU5823/Models Political Model of universities • Baldridge (1971) • Bases the political on three theories – conflict theory, community power studies, and theory of interest groups in organizations. • Has five points of analysis – social structure features, interest articulation processes, legislative phases, policy formulation, and policy execution. • A complex social structure generates pressures, forms of power impinge decision makers, legislative stage translates pressures into policy, policy execution generates feedback in the form of new conflicts.
EDU5823/Models Theoretical background for Political Model
EDU5823/Models Assumptions of the Political Model Six underlying assumptions • Inactivity prevails – small groups govern major decisions • Fluid participation – people move in and out of the decision making process. • Fragmentation into interest groups – power blocs and interest groups to influence policy. • Normalcy of conflict – conflict is normal and is expected in a dynamic organization. • Limitations of formal authority – authority is limited by political pressure and bargaining. • External interest groups – external groups may exert pressure.
Political Model as the Governance Mechanism in Steering Universities Presenter: Soaib Asimiran AGRICULTURE, INNOVATION, SUSTAINABILITY
Introduction UG as the framework by which authority, power and university’s functions are systematically organized according to university constitutions. AGRICULTURE, INNOVATION, SUSTAINABILITY
The Problem • Researches on university governance have come up with several models such as the political, bureaucratic and collegial models. • Each model captures distinctive perceptions or viewpoints of the researcher relative to issues, problems, location, and changes. • Despite the many models in the literature, however, there is still a lack of empirical work to portray the applicability of the models in the governance of public universities, particularly about which model dominating the governance of universities. AGRICULTURE, INNOVATION, SUSTAINABILITY
The Research Objectives • To examine the governance practices from the political theories perspective. • To explore how the governance mechanism through political model was understood by the main players in the governance practices in the Malaysian public universities. Methodology • Qualitative - interviews, documents analysis. AGRICULTURE, INNOVATION, SUSTAINABILITY
What are the dimensions of political model that are practiced in the governance mechanisms in Malaysian universities? Legal Framework • The Constitution of a University describes the provisions for the proper governance framework and functioning of the university. • There is an indication and inclination that the government has control over the universities by showing how the state maintain control over universities. AGRICULTURE, INNOVATION, SUSTAINABILITY
What are the dimensions of political model that are practiced in the governance mechanisms in Malaysian universities? University Power • A self-governing community of scholars for academic domination was legally laid down by the Constitution. • Constitutional ambiguity with regard to the provisions of powers and authorities contributed to conflicting views and perceptions among the interviewees. AGRICULTURE, INNOVATION, SUSTAINABILITY
How the governance mechanism through political model was understood? Constitutional Framework in Uniformity • The statement of purpose delineates the formal procedures to guide a university. Conflicts in Governance • University governance embraces a political process. Representation in Governance Structure • Representation in governance structure not favoring the academic community. External and Regulating Interventions • The issue of external governance versus internal governance emerged demanding a clearer demarcation. AGRICULTURE, INNOVATION, SUSTAINABILITY
Discussion: Political nature • The law established the levels of authority with various names. • Universities are embedded within market and political environments that place certain demands and expectations. • Public universities have multiple functions and are expected to serve many purposes in the political life of ruling governments. • Members of public governing mechanisms structures are political actors, often seen as protecting the political interest of the ruling government. • It was felt that in practice, the Board has less power as compared to Vice-Chancellors. AGRICULTURE, INNOVATION, SUSTAINABILITY
Conclusion: The public universities are viewed as government’s arms to fulfil the national education, thus have made the public universities subservient to the political aspirations of the government. It is our contention that there must be an enabling law environment which would encourage the public universities to innovate more freely and less political interventions. The universities are expected to contribute to national development by providing quality academic programs relevant to the current demands and needs.
EDU5823/Models Collegial Model of universities • Regards universities as the community of scholars (Millet, 1962, 1978, 1980) Goodman (1962). • Professional qualifications of academics, the lack of clearly defined roles and organizational ambiguity are main elements that consider decision makings are done based on consensus. • Millet defines the academic community model as a structure and process bringing together three or more groups of a campus to decide issues of campus governance. • There is a community of authority. Power is shared by faculty, students, alumni, and administrators. • The academics has a dual role, as individual and collegial. Individual refers to academic as a unit in educational process while collegial academics have roles in department, faculty, univ.
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