VO2 MAX VO2 Max, Aerobic Power& Maximal Oxygen Uptake. VO2 max has been defined as: "the highest rate of oxygen consumption attainable during maximal or exhaustive exercise" As exercise intensity increases so does oxygen consumption. However, a point is reached where exercise intensity can continue to increase without the associated rise in oxygen consumption. To understand this in more practical terms, take a look at the diagram below
The point at which oxygen consumption plateaus defines the VO2 max or an individual's maximal aerobic capacity. It is generally considered the best indicator of cardiorespiratory endurance and aerobic fitness. However, it is more useful as an indicator of a person's aerobic potential or upper limit than as a predictor of success in endurance events. • Aerobic power, aerobic capacity and maximal oxygen uptake are all terms used interchangeably with VO2 max. • Determining VO2 Max • VO2 max can be determined through a number of physical evaluations. These tests can be direct or indirect. Direct testing requires sophisticated equipment to measure the volume and gas concentrations of inspired and expired air. There are many protocols used on treadmills, cycle ergometers and other exercise equipment to measure VO2 max directly. • Indirect testing is much more widely used by coaches as it requires little or no expensive equipment. There are many indirect tests used to estimate VO2 max. Some are more reliable and accurate than others but none are as accurate as direct testing. Examples include the multistage shuttle run (beep test) and the 12 minute coopers run test.
Cooper 12 Minute Run • This is an endurance test you can use to predict your VO2max. You only require a stopwatch and a 400m track. • Run continuously for 12 minutes. Try to maintain a constant pace throughout. Note the total distance covered and use one of the following formulas to predict your VO2max: • For distance in Yards... • 0.0206 x yards covered minus 11.3For distance in Meters... • 0.0225 x meters covered minus 11.3 • So if you covered 3000 meters for example: • 0.0225 x 3000 - 11.3 = 56.2 ml/kg/min • Multistage Shuttle Run (Beep Test) • This is a maximal test which means it is performed until exhaustion. The test is excellent for multi-sprint sports such as soccer and rugby and it allows testing for an entire team simultaneously. • The test involves running 20 meter shuttles. The test is split into a series of 1-minute levels. Each level consists of a number of beeps that dictates the pace at which each 20 meter shuttle must be run. As the levels progress the beeps become quicker and more frequent so a greater number of shuttles has to be completed inside 1 minute. The starting speed (level 1) is 8.5km/hr and increases by 0.5km/hr for each level. • The test ends when the athlete(s) can no longer maintain the pace of the beeps.
SUMMARY • The higher VO2 maximum and the higher the aerobic threshold, the better the performance, because of the lack of fatigue. • Aerobic thresholds increases with trainings EXERCISE. In groups of 2 or 3 discuss ways of training to improve your VO2 max and aerobic threshold.
MUSCULAR STRENGTH Muscular strength is defined as “The force that a muscle or group of muscles can exert in a single maximal contraction – For example, lifting a heavy weight once.” FACTORS AFFECTING STRENGTH. • The size of the muscles • The muscles length • Muscle fibre type • Age of the person • Sex of the person • Speed of contraction