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Network Security: Routing security

Network Security: Routing security

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Network Security: Routing security

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  1. Network Security: Routing security Aapo Kalliola T-110.5241 Network securityAalto University, Nov-Dec 2012

  2. Outline • Structure of internet • Routing basics • Security issues • Attack • Solutions (?) • Censorship and avoidance • Case studies

  3. Couldn’t routing be trivial? ”Explosive growth is taxing current Internet routing mechanisms. New sites continue to join the Internet… In some sense, the Internet is a victim of its own success; many routing protocols are being used in environments for which they had not been designed.” - Thomas Narten, ”Internet routing”, 1989

  4. Routing basics

  5. Internet (?)

  6. Internet, late 1980s Hosts, networks and gateways N1 N2 N3 G1 G3 H1 H3 G5 G2 G4 N5 N4 H3 G6

  7. Internet, 1990s Hierarchical structure National backbone NAP NAP Regional access providers Local access providers ISP Cust. IP networks

  8. Internet 2000s Rise of hyper giants Google, CDNs etc. National backbone Global core IXP IXP IXP ISP Regional / Tier 2 providers ISP Cust. IP networks 8

  9. Internet 2010s Rise of IXPs Google, CDNs etc. National backbone IXP IXP IXP Huge traffic ISP ISP Cust. IP networks 9 9

  10. What routing where? • Interior Gateway Protocols (IGP) within an Autonomous System (AS) • Exterior Gateway Protocols (EGP) between AS • EGP can also refer to the precursor of BGP • Border Gateway Protocol (BGP) is, in practise, the only EGP in use IGP / BGP BGP IGP IGP IGP Customer network End host ISP IXP Back-bone

  11. Routing in and between Autonomous Systems (Ases) • Tens of thousands of ASes • Hundreds of thousands of BGP prefixes • AS(path) – network –prefixes, basically • 12345 35.128.0.0/16 • Internally motivated by efficiency • Externally motivated by • Link costs • Transmission capacity • Load • Policy decisions

  12. BGP prefix numbers increasing (Team cymru global BGP prefix count, November 2013)

  13. Interior gateway protocols • IGPs exchange routing information within an AS • Link-state protocols maintain information about the whole network topology • Open Shortest Path First (OSPF) • Intermediate System to Intermediate System (IS-IS) • Distance-vector protocols converge over time to common understanding of paths • RIP / RIPv2 • IGRP • Hybrid protocols have features from both • E-IGRP

  14. Border gateway protocol • BGP is the procol for making routing decisions between ASes • Routing decisions are not made by automation but rather by commercial interests • Two main types of relations: • Peering – exchanging traffic freely between peers • Transit – smaller AS buying data transit from larger AS

  15. BGP • Design goals • Scalability for connecting AS on internet scale • Enabling policy decisions such as filtering route announcements • Must work in a distributed competitive environment (vs. early centralized internet) • Two types of BGP sessions • eBGP for routers from different ASes • Route information exchange between ASes • iBGP for routers within AS • Disseminating information about learned external routes within AS

  16. How routes are distributed • AS may be in three relations to another AS: • Peer • Customer • Provider • Typical model, not always so: • Routes from customers are re-distributed to customers, peers and providers • Peer-learned routes are re-distributed to customers but not to other peers nor to providers • Provider-learned routes are re-distributed to customers, but not to other providers, nor to any peers

  17. BGP (cont.) • Data plane in green: host to host traffic • Control plane in blue: BGP route information • Both BGP and data flows need to work in reverse for two-way communication • Reverse path doesn’t need to be the same, though AS1 AS2 AS7 AS5 H2 AS6 AS4 H1

  18. BGP leak/hijack • Another AS claims to have a better route to a certain network • Reverse direction doesn’t need to be hijacked unless the attacker wants to do a MitM attack AS1 AS2 AS7 AS5 H2 AS6 AS4 H3 H1

  19. How an AS is created • Apply for an AS number from local Regional Internet Registry • Get a connection to an IXP • Could also just use a normal ISP -> waste of AS numbers • Get transit or peering from another AS • -> you’re on!

  20. Security issues in routing

  21. Attacks on BGP – outside • Link cutting • Physical • Logical • DoS • Attacks using data plane • Clever use of data plane DDoS to cut BGP connections

  22. CXPST • CXPST is an extension of previous low-rate TCP attack work on DDoSing big routers • Ingredients: • medium botnet (250000 bots) • Internet structure recoinnassance • Good timing • Overwhelm one router at a time • Router drops its BGP connections • When the router is re-establishing BGP connections, target the neighbours • Could theoretically take down large parts of internet

  23. Attacks on BGP – inside • Attacks on control plane • Route leaks • Route hijacks • Man-in-the-Middle • Tricky but possible • Possible to find attacker AS, though not trivial

  24. How to get inside? • Set up a throw-away AS • Use false information and stolen credit cards • Establish transit/peering • No need to have many connections • Advertise malicious routes • Profit!! • (or whatever you want to do with the traffic you get) • Leave the AS untended

  25. Route leaking / hijacking • Route leaking • Accidental by definition • AS_x has multiple links to other Ases • AS_x gets complete internet route announcement set from its provider • AS_x accidentally announces the set through another AS link • This wrong annoucement gets propagated • -> all traffic from affected ASes goes to AS_x • Route hijacking • Malicious by definition • AS_x announces a very good path to the target network • ASes receiving the annoucement prefer this path and route directed to target to AS_x • -> traffic directed to attack target from affected ASes gets intercepted by AS_x • Could be indistinguishable from each other

  26. BGP Man-in-the-Middle • Traceroute & plan reply path to target • Note the ASN’s seen towards target from traceroute& BGP table on your router • Apply as-path prepends naming each of the ASN’s intended for reply path • Set up static routes towards the next hop of the first AS in reply path • -> done

  27. Case from Nov 2013

  28. Attacks

  29. Traffic snooping • Comprehensive traffic recording? • This might already be going on without need for BGP attacks • Popularization of IXPs? • ”A few people operate the SIX with a few Cisco switches in a rack. Essentially every major carrier and service provider now connects to the SIX..” • Not really indicative of any real problem with IXPs, just that there are many different parties involved in getting a data packet from source to destination

  30. Traffic spoofing • MITM for all traffic • Can also modify, possibly without detection • Total interception • Faked replies • Censorship purposes • Dropping / reseting / redirecting replies

  31. Other • Spamming (fly-by) • Capture a network that hasn’t been used for malicious activity • Send spam from the network • Network gets blocked • Repeat • DoS • Capture the target network • Drop the incoming traffic • Target impersonation • Capture the target network • Reply to incoming traffic with valid responses of your own • Attacking the routers themselves • Default passwords

  32. How to react? • Analysis of what is happening • Where the attack originates • Malicious vs. Accidental • Malicious attacks difficult to stop • Must get several ASes to cooperate in filtering out the offending route announcements • Accidents fixed by informing the origin of the erronous traffic -> fixes in minutes, usually • After origin is fixed the global routing state corrects itself • Complete correction might take a long time: hours/days

  33. Solutions (?)

  34. Sanity checks • Maximum number of routes accepted from a neighbouring AS • Helps against accidental ”all-of-internet here” route leaks • Not accepting too specific routes • /22 probably ok, /32 suspicious • Cutting BGP sessions that clearly advertise erronous routes • Might cause even worse problems

  35. Origin authentication • An AS gets a crypto certificate from its RIR containing its network and AS number • It’s possibly to verify AS identity using Resource Public Key Infrastructure (RPKI) • Additional overhead • Many routers don’t support RPKI

  36. Secure Origin BGP • Certificate-based system, backed by Cisco • Options for transporting certificates by various means • Even on data plane • Tweaking routes by accepting some and denying some possible

  37. S-BGP • Certificate-based system, somewhat similar to soBGP • Requires PKI • Provides path verification and point-to-point security between routers (IPSec) • Authorization for both advertising ownership of a network and for advertising being part of a route

  38. Data-plane verification • Requires functionality on both control and data plane • In addition to doing normal BGP operation check for data plane reachability problems • Works for blackholing, accidents and stale routes • Does not require PKI infrastructure • Overhead!

  39. Counterpoint 1/3 • Partial adoption of secured BGP may actually decrease the overall security of a network! • BGP Security in Partial Deployment: Is the Juice Worth the Squeeze?. Lychev et al., SIGCOMM 2013 • http://conferences.sigcomm.org/sigcomm/2013/papers/sigcomm/p171.pdf

  40. Counterpoint 2/3 W • ? Y X offers the shorter path Z X V • ? Shorter path! P/S P/S P/S P/S P/S M D prefix

  41. Counterpoint 3/3 Y experiences collateral damage because X is secure! W • ? Y W offers the shorter path! Z X V • ? P/S P/S P/S P/S P/S P/S M D prefix

  42. Censorship and avoidance

  43. Great firewall of China • Does • snooping • filtering • DNS injection • Also tries to prevent accessing foreign proxies for free internet access • Unwittingly also affects also traffic transiting through China • For instance German subnets have received censored DNS replies • Hopefully fixed since published fall 2012

  44. Decoy Routing • Setup routers with special functionality randomly around the internet • Censored end host apparently try to access allowed content • A special router is on path to allowed content • The special router recognizes the end host are routes request to censored content • Censored content origin is faked to look like allowed content origin • Censored end host receives the censored content

  45. Problems in previous proposal • The special routers need to be on the traffic path • Number of routers required already quite high .. • .. especially if the censor has lots of connections • If the censor is capable of modifying routing • Interconnectivity way too high to deploy enough routers • Nation-wide censorship usually is routing-capable

  46. More case studies

  47. AS 7007 incident, 1997 • ..where the BGP worries started • AS 7007 started leaking a large part of complete route table • -> Much of traffic in internet blackholed • Took priority in BGP due to chopping announced networks to /24 blocks • BGP cleanup took quite a while

  48. ICANN DNS root server L, 2008 • ICANN moved root server L to a new IP address • Regardless, the old IP kept responding to DNS requests

  49. Pakistan blocking Youtube, 2008 • Country-internal blocking by leaked to the whole internet

  50. China Telecom 2010 • China “leaked”routes and captures a significant portion of internet traffic for some minutes