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What is Energy?

What is Energy?

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What is Energy?

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  1. What is Energy? What is the relationship between energy and work? Compare kinetic and potential energy What are the different types of energy?

  2. What is energy? • Energy is the ability to do work. • Great, but what is work? • Work is done when a force (caused by energy) causes an object to move. • Work = Force x distance

  3. Energy / Work • Energy is needed to push a box across the floor. The box moving across the floor is an example of work. • Energy is needed to hit a home run. The ball flying over the fence is an example of work.

  4. Two Basic Types of Energy • Potential Energy = the energy of an object due to its position, shape, or condition • Kinetic Energy = the energy of an object due to the object’s motion

  5. Potential Energy • Not all energy has to do with motion. • Potential Energy is the energy an object has because of its position, shape, or condition. • Objects with potential energy have the potential, or ability, to do work.

  6. Potential Energy Preview • We will learn about three kinds of Potential Energy • Elastic Potential Energy • Chemical Potential Energy • Gravitational Potential Energy

  7. Elastic Potential Energy • The bow has energy because work has been done to change its shape. • The energy of that work is turned into potential energy. • When the arrow is released the potential energy of the bow and string will be transferred to the arrow, sending it flying through the air.

  8. Elastic Potential Energy • Compressed, or squished, springs also have potential energy. • A spring has energy because work has been done to change its shape. • Just like the bow, the energy of that work is turned into potential energy.

  9. Elastic Potential Energy • What about rubber bands and other things that stretch? • Elastic Potential Energy

  10. How do we “release” the potential energy stored in springs?

  11. Chemical Energy • Chemical Energy is the potential energy stored in substances. • Calories = the chemical energy of food • Batteries also have chemical energy • It all depends upon the position and arrangement of the atoms in a compound.

  12. Chemical Potential Energy • A battery has potential energy due to its condition. • Potential Energy is stored in the chemicals within the battery. • A fully charged battery has the potential to do work.

  13. Chemical Potential Energy • Chemical Potential Energy can be found in food. • Calories!

  14. Chemical Energy (cont’d) • Which type of food has the highest chemical potential energy (calories)?

  15. Gravitational Potential Energy • When someone pushes you on a swing, you and the swing gain potential energy because work has been done to change your position. • You will have the most potential energy at the top, right before you begin your arc downward. • Think about swinging. When will you have the most kinetic energy?

  16. Gravitational Potential Energy • When you lift an object, you do work on it. • You use a force that is against the force of gravity. • When you do this you transfer energy to the object and give the object Gravitational Potential Energy. • The amount of Gravitational Potential Energy an object has depends on the objects weight and height above the ground.

  17. Gravitational Potential Energy • Books on a shelf have Gravitational Potential Energy. • Which books have the most Gravitational Potential Energy? Why?

  18. Gravitational Potential Energy • A man and his cell phone are on a ledge outside a very tall building. • Which object (the man or his cell phone) has the most Gravitational Potential Energy? Why?

  19. How do we calculate Gravitational Potential Energy? • GPE = Weight x Height • Measure Weight in Newtons (N) • Measure Height in meters (m) • The unit for Gravitational Potential Energy = Newton meters (Nm) or Joules (J)

  20. Calculate the Gravitational Potential Energy • GPE = Weight x Height • Book #1 weighs 25 N on a shelf that is 2 meters off of the ground. • Book #2 weighs 25 N and is on a shelf only 1 meter off of the ground. • Which book has the most GPE?

  21. Calculate the Gravitational Potential Energy • GPE = Weight x Height • Man weighs 300 N on a ledge that is 200 meters off of the ground. • Cell Phone weighs 15 N and is on the same ledge. • Which object has the most GPE?

  22. Practice Calculating GPE • GPE = Weight x Height • Tools: Metric tape measure, spring scale (be sure to use the Newton scale), calculator • Units! Units! Units! ~ The units for GPE are Newton meters (Nm) or Joules (J)

  23. Potential Energy Review • We learned about three kinds of Potential Energy • Elastic Potential Energy • Chemical Potential Energy • Gravitational Potential Energy

  24. Kinetic Energy Preview • Kinetic Energy is the energy of motion or energy in use • Any matter in motion has Kinetic Energy • There are many forms of Kinetic Energy • Some forms include: light (radiant), thermal (heat), sound (acoustic), electrical, and mechanical

  25. Thermal Energy • All matter is made up of atoms • Atoms are in constant motion • Thermal energy (heat) is all of the kinetic energy due to the random motion of atoms • Thermal energy also depends upon the amount of atoms that are moving

  26. Solids • The atoms in an ice cube vibrate in fixed positions and do not have a lot of kinetic energy.

  27. Liquids • Atoms of water in a lake can move more freely and have more kinetic energy than atoms in ice do.

  28. Gas • The atoms of water in steam move rapidly, so they have more energy than the particles in liquid water or ice do.

  29. Thermal Energy (cont’d) • Thermal energy depends upon the amount of atoms that are moving.

  30. Consider, a cup of tea and the water in a bath tub. • Both are the same temperature. • Which has more thermal energy?

  31. ? ? ? ? ? ? ? • The water in the bathtub has more thermal energy. • Why? • Simply because it has more water molecules.

  32. Conduction • Conduction is the transfer of energy through matter from particle to particle. • It is the transfer and distribution of heat energy from atom to atom within a substance. Conduction is most effective in solids-but it can happen in fluids.

  33. Conduction (cont’d) • For example, a spoon in a cup of hot soup becomes warmer because the heat from the soup is conducted along the spoon.

  34. Conduction (cont’d) • Have you ever noticed that metals tend to feel cold? • Believe it or not, they are not colder! • They only feel colder because they conduct heat away from your hand. • You perceive the heat that is leaving your hand as cold.

  35. Conduction (cont’d) • Some items are conductors, they conduct heat well. Example: metal • Some items are insulators, they DO NOT conduct heat well. Examples: fabric, wood, wool, and some plastic

  36. Think about it . . . • What do we use a “cooler” for? • What do we use a coffee mug for? • Differences / Similarities?

  37. Convection • Convection is the transfer of heat by the actual movement of the warmed matter. • Heat leaves the coffee cup as the currents of steam and air rise. • Convection is the transfer of heat energy in a gas or liquid by movement of currents.

  38. Convection (cont’d) • Convection is responsible for making macaroni rise and fall in a pot of heated water. • The warmer portions of the water are less dense and therefore, they rise. • Meanwhile, the cooler portions of the water fall because they are denser.

  39. Mechanical Kinetic Energy • Kinetic Energy = the energy of an object due to the object’s motion • All moving objects have kinetic energy • Kinetic Energy depends on Mass and Speed

  40. Mechanical Kinetic Energy (cont’d) • KE = mass x speed x speed divided by 2 • The greater the mass of a moving object, the more Kinetic Energy it has. • The faster something is moving, the more Kinetic Energy it has, also.

  41. Mechanical Kinetic Energy • Which animal has the bigger mass? • Which animal is able to move faster? • Which animal has the greatest KE? • KE = mass x speed2 2

  42. Calculate the Mechanical Kinetic Energy (KE) • KE = mass x speed2 2 • Mass = 0.2 kg • Speed = 2 meters/sec • KE = 0.4 J

  43. Mechanical Kinetic Energy • KE = mass x speed2 2 • Mass = 4000 kg • Speed = 2 meters/sec (Note that the elephant is going the same speed as the mouse.) • KE = 8000 J

  44. What effect does an increase of speed have on Mechanical Kinetic Energy? • The green and yellow cars have the same mass (1,200 kg) • The green car is traveling at a speed of 20 m/sec • The yellow car is traveling at a speed of 30 m/sec • Calculate their Kinetic Energies • KE = mass x speed2 2

  45. Which car has the most KE? • Green car’s KE = 240,000 J • Yellow car’s KE = 540,000 J • Speed has a greater effect on KE than mass because in the equation speed is squared. • In other words, the faster an object is going . . . the more KE is has.

  46. Practice Calculating KE • Use Joules (J) as the unit for Kinetic Energy • Tools: meter tape, stop watch, scale, calculator • KE = mass x speed2 2

  47. Electrical Energy • Electrical Energy is the energy of moving electrons. • Electricity is the flow of electrical power or charge.

  48. Electrical Energy (cont’d) • It is a secondary energy source which means that we get it from the conversion of other sources of energy, like coal, natural gas, oil, nuclear power and other natural sources, which are called primary sources.

  49. Electrical Energy (cont’d) • The energy sources we use to make electricity can be renewable or non-renewable, but electricity itself is neither renewable or non-renewable.

  50. Static electricity is usually caused when certain materials are rubbed against each other, like wool on plastic or the soles of your shoes on the carpet. It is the attraction of two objects because one has a positive charge and the other has a negative charge. Two types of electricity: Static and Current