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Informing biodiversity monitoring & reporting designs

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  1. Informing biodiversity monitoring & reporting designs • A coordinated system for biodiversity monitoring • Trustworthy biodiversity measures • Species occupancy: uses and abuses • Solutions for standardising and mobilising data

  2. A coordinated system for biodiversity monitoring Peter Bellingham

  3. Multiple reporting obligations International • Convention on Biological Diversity National • NZ Biodiversity Strategy….. ‘maintain and restore a full range of remaining natural habitats and ecosystems to a healthy functioning state’ Internal • Assessing DOC’s performance with respect to achieving its stated outcomes

  4. Effective management requires Information on • Where biodiversity outcomes are being achieved • How management interventions can be used to improve outcomes

  5. Biodiversity monitoring in 2000 • Networks of biodiversity information with time-series data • Biased assessments • No coordination among sites • Mostly in managed sites • Can’t report losses & gains nationally

  6. A national monitoring system For public conservation lands: • National and regional reporting of status and trend in ecological integrity • Evaluating the effectiveness of conservation management and policy • Informing prioritisation for resource allocation • An early-warning system

  7. Evaluating ecological integrity • Indigenous dominance ‘Are the ecological processes natural?’ • Species occupancy ‘Are the species present what you would expect naturally?’ • Ecosystem representation ‘Are the full range of ecosystems protected somewhere?’

  8. Biodiversity measures Vegetation • Distribution and abundance of exotic weeds considered a threat • Size-class structure of canopy dominants • Representation of plant functional types Animals • Distribution and abundance of exotic pests considered a threat • Assemblages of widespread animal species – Birds

  9. Sampling framework • 8 x 8 km grid • Standardised field surveys • Vegetation • Mammal pests • Birds • 5-year rotating-panel design • Unique subset of locations sampled each year

  10. Building trustworthy biodiversity measures A proof-of-concept using birds Catriona MacLeod

  11. Users of monitoring information

  12. Users of monitoring information

  13. Users of monitoring information

  14. Meeting multiple stakeholders’ expectations Kiwi Kereru Tui Skylark Magpie Rosella Kakapo Kaka Citizen scientist Iwi Industry Regional councils DOC NZ Public International

  15. Meeting multiple stakeholders’ expectations Kiwi Kereru Tui Skylark Magpie Rosella Kakapo Kaka Citizen scientist Iwi Industry Regional councils DOC NZ Public International

  16. Meeting multiple stakeholders’ expectations Kiwi Kereru Tui Skylark Magpie Rosella Kakapo Kaka Citizen scientist Iwi Industry Regional councils DOC NZ Public International

  17. Data sources and use Strong POWER TO DETECT CHANGE Weak SPATIAL ZONE OF INFERENCE Local National Specific landscape

  18. Data sources and use Strong POWER TO DETECT CHANGE NZ bird atlases: national scale Museum collections: national scale Weak SPATIAL ZONE OF INFERENCE Local National Specific landscape

  19. Data sources and use Strong POWER TO DETECT CHANGE Traditional Ecological Knowledge: taonga species NZ bird atlases: national scale Historic 5MBC database: Specific study sites Museum collections: national scale NatureWatch & eBird: Locations of interest to observer Weak SPATIAL ZONE OF INFERENCE Local National Specific landscape

  20. Data sources and use Strong POWER TO DETECT CHANGE DOC BMRS Tier 2: Managed sites DOC BMRS Tier 1: Public conservation lands Traditional Ecological Knowledge: taonga species NZ Garden bird survey: Urban landscapes NZ bird atlases: national scale Historic 5MBC database: Specific study sites Museum collections: national scale NatureWatch & eBird: Locations of interest to observer Weak SPATIAL ZONE OF INFERENCE Local National Specific landscape

  21. Knowledge development & survey design Extent of knowledge Numbers, ranges and trends Rare or concentrated Intermediate Widespread & common Abundance & distribution

  22. Knowledge development & survey design Site & species surveys Extent of knowledge Numbers, ranges and trends Generic surveys Atlases Rare or concentrated Intermediate Widespread & common Abundance & distribution

  23. Improving data sources and use Strong POWER TO DETECT CHANGE DOC BMRS Tier 2: Managed sites DOC BMRS Tier 1: Public conservation lands Traditional Ecological Knowledge: taonga species NatureWatch & eBird: Locations of regional interest NZ Garden bird survey: Urban landscapes NZ bird atlases: national scale Historic 5MBC database: Specific study sites Museum collections: national scale NatureWatch & eBird: Locations of interest to observer Weak SPATIAL ZONE OF INFERENCE Local National Specific landscape

  24. Improving data sources and use Strong POWER TO DETECT CHANGE DOC BMRS Tier 2: Managed sites DOC BMRS Tier 1: Public conservation lands Traditional Ecological Knowledge: taonga species NatureWatch & eBird: Locations of regional interest NatureWatch & eBird: Locations of regional interest NZ Garden bird survey: Urban landscapes NZ bird atlases: national scale Historic 5MBC database: Specific study sites Museum collections: national scale NatureWatch & eBird: Locations of interest to observer Weak SPATIAL ZONE OF INFERENCE Local National Specific landscape

  25. Key steps for monitoring design Why? Knowledge focus Action focus

  26. Key steps for monitoring design Why? Knowledge focus Action focus What? Identify target indicators State or dynamic variables? Scale you want to inform?

  27. Key steps for monitoring design Why? Knowledge focus Action focus What? Identify target indicators State or dynamic variables? Scale you want to inform? How? Study sites Sampling effort/site Sampling events Sampling method

  28. Key steps for monitoring design Why? Knowledge focus Action focus What? Identify target indicators State or dynamic variables? Scale you want to inform? How? Study sites Sampling effort/site Sampling events Sampling method Report Database structure & management Data analysis skills Audit results Report results

  29. Research aims GOALS & VALUES OF INTEREST

  30. Research aims MECHANISMS TO ENHANCE DATA SOURCES GOALS & VALUES OF INTEREST

  31. Research aims TRUSTED & USEFUL INDIVIDUAL INDICATORS MECHANISMS TO ENHANCE DATA SOURCES GOALS & VALUES OF INTEREST

  32. Research aims EASILY COMMUNICATED AGGREGATED MEASURES TRUSTED & USEFUL INDIVIDUAL INDICATORS MECHANISMS TO ENHANCE DATA SOURCES GOALS & VALUES OF INTEREST

  33. Trustworthy biodiversity measures to benefit NZ Process for aggregating & scaling measures

  34. Trustworthy biodiversity measures to benefit NZ Process for aggregating & scaling measures Process for building engagement & trust

  35. Trustworthy biodiversity measures to benefit NZ Ways to improve data sources & reporting Process for aggregating & scaling measures Process for building engagement & trust

  36. PROCESS FOR AGGREGATING & SCALING MEASURES Indicator characteristics reflect goals & values Critical goals to NZ

  37. PROCESS FOR AGGREGATING & SCALING MEASURES Benefits & limitations of harmonised reporting Relative value & contributions of different data sources Indicator characteristics reflect goals & values Critical goals to NZ

  38. PROCESS FOR AGGREGATING & SCALING MEASURES Benefits & limitations of harmonised reporting Comparable indicators for different scales & needs Relative value & contributions of different data sources Indicator characteristics reflect goals & values Critical goals to NZ

  39. PROCESS FOR AGGREGATING & SCALING MEASURES Benefits & limitations of harmonised reporting Aggregating & scaling measure for tailored reporting Comparable indicators for different scales & needs Relative value & contributions of different data sources Indicator characteristics reflect goals & values Critical goals to NZ

  40. PROCESS FOR BUILDING ENGAGEMENT & TRUST PROCESS FOR AGGREGATING & SCALING MEASURES Aggregating & scaling measure for tailored reporting Comparable indicators for different scales & needs Relative value & contributions of different data sources Biodiversity values of interest Range of monitoring & reporting goals Indicator characteristics reflect goals & values Critical goals to NZ

  41. PROCESS FOR BUILDING ENGAGEMENT & TRUST PROCESS FOR AGGREGATING & SCALING MEASURES Aggregating & scaling measure for tailored reporting Comparable indicators for different scales & needs Data awareness & sharing barriers Data credibility & understanding criteria Relative value & contributions of different data sources Biodiversity values of interest Range of monitoring & reporting goals Indicator characteristics reflect goals & values Critical goals to NZ

  42. PROCESS FOR BUILDING ENGAGEMENT & TRUST PROCESS FOR AGGREGATING & SCALING MEASURES Aggregating & scaling measure for tailored reporting Individual indicators are useful & trusted Comparable indicators for different scales & needs Data awareness & sharing barriers Data credibility & understanding criteria Relative value & contributions of different data sources Biodiversity values of interest Range of monitoring & reporting goals Indicator characteristics reflect goals & values Critical goals to NZ

  43. PROCESS FOR BUILDING ENGAGEMENT & TRUST PROCESS FOR AGGREGATING & SCALING MEASURES Aggregated measures are easily communicated & understood Aggregating & scaling measure for tailored reporting Individual indicators are useful & trusted Comparable indicators for different scales & needs Data awareness & sharing barriers Data credibility & understanding criteria Relative value & contributions of different data sources Biodiversity values of interest Range of monitoring & reporting goals Indicator characteristics reflect goals & values Critical goals to NZ

  44. PROCESS FOR BUILDING ENGAGEMENT & TRUST PROCESS FOR AGGREGATING & SCALING MEASURES WAYS TO IMPROVE DATA SOURCES & REPORTING Aggregated measures are easily communicated & understood Aggregating & scaling measure for tailored reporting Individual indicators are useful & trusted Comparable indicators for different scales & needs Data awareness & sharing barriers Data credibility & understanding criteria Relative value & contributions of different data sources Communication strategies to cross social boundaries Mechanisms to collaborate on shared goals Biodiversity values of interest Range of monitoring & reporting goals Indicator characteristics reflect goals & values Critical goals to NZ

  45. PROCESS FOR BUILDING ENGAGEMENT & TRUST PROCESS FOR AGGREGATING & SCALING MEASURES WAYS TO IMPROVE DATA SOURCES & REPORTING Aggregated measures are easily communicated & understood Aggregating & scaling measure for tailored reporting Individual indicators are useful & trusted Comparable indicators for different scales & needs Data awareness & sharing barriers Data credibility & understanding criteria Relative value & contributions of different data sources Cost-effective ways to address gaps & improve data Biodiversity values of interest Range of monitoring & reporting goals Communication strategies to cross social boundaries Mechanisms to collaborate on shared goals Indicator characteristics reflect goals & values Critical goals to NZ

  46. PROCESS FOR BUILDING ENGAGEMENT & TRUST PROCESS FOR AGGREGATING & SCALING MEASURES WAYS TO IMPROVE DATA SOURCES & REPORTING Aggregated measures are easily communicated & understood Aggregating & scaling measure for tailored reporting Ways for stakeholders to identify ‘fit-for-purpose’ indicators Individual indicators are useful & trusted Comparable indicators for different scales & needs Data awareness & sharing barriers Data credibility & understanding criteria Relative value & contributions of different data sources Cost-effective ways to address gaps & improve data Biodiversity values of interest Range of monitoring & reporting goals Communication strategies to cross social boundaries Mechanisms to collaborate on shared goals Indicator characteristics reflect goals & values Critical goals to NZ

  47. PROCESS FOR BUILDING ENGAGEMENT & TRUST PROCESS FOR AGGREGATING & SCALING MEASURES WAYS TO IMPROVE DATA SOURCES & REPORTING Aggregated measures are easily communicated & understood Aggregating & scaling measure for tailored reporting Benefits & limitations of harmonised reporting Ways for stakeholders to identify ‘fit-for-purpose’ indicators Individual indicators are useful & trusted Comparable indicators for different scales & needs Data awareness & sharing barriers Data credibility & understanding criteria Relative value & contributions of different data sources Cost-effective ways to address gaps & improve data Biodiversity values of interest Range of monitoring & reporting goals Communication strategies to cross social boundaries Mechanisms to collaborate on shared goals Indicator characteristics reflect goals & values Critical goals to NZ

  48. Harmonised system for different needs International National Regional Site/farm

  49. Occupancy: Uses and abuses Andrew Gormley Landcare Research