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2 nd Quarter Skills Review. Preparation for 2 nd Quarter Reading Benchmark Test December 13, 2018. Reading Informational Standards. RI.5.1 – Quoting Evidence in Text RI.5.2 – Main Idea & Summarizing RI.5.3 – Relationships & Interactions RI.5.4 – Determine Meaning of Words.
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2nd Quarter Skills Review Preparation for 2nd Quarter Reading Benchmark Test December 13, 2018
Reading Informational Standards RI.5.1 – Quoting Evidence in Text RI.5.2 – Main Idea & Summarizing RI.5.3 – Relationships & Interactions RI.5.4 – Determine Meaning of Words
RI.5.1 – Quoting Text • Citing evidence means proving your answers from information you found in the book.
Example #1 Which quote from the text supports the inference that professional chefs prefer cast iron skillets? • "When cooking a dish, it is important that the dish cooks evenly." • "A cast iron skillet, when used properly, almost always guarantees a juicy piece of meat." • "A cast iron skillet gets really hot, several hundred degrees hotter than a regular frying pan." • "When people are ready to get serious about cooking, they put away that frying pan and break out the cast iron."
Example #2 Which of the following would be weak evidence to support Van Gogh's claim that it is good to love many things? Select the best answer. • According to some psychologists, love can distract people from accomplishing goals. • Thousands of years of Buddhist practice and philosophy asserts that the greatest good can come from loving each other. • Throughout history, artists who love their work have been shown to produce a great amount of work. • Some of the world's most accomplished inventors have displayed the most passion for their work.
RI.5.2 – Main Idea/Summarizing • The main idea is the big point that the writer is communicating to the reader. • Often the reader can approach the main idea just by looking at the title. • Main Idea - is like the heart of the text or a paragraph. • It is the controlling idea. • All the other supporting details in the text or within a paragraph should tell us more about the main idea.
Example #1 Based on the title, which topic might this text be about? • the invention of rocket ships • the shapes of things under a microscope • the shapes of things in space • the destruction of space
Main Idea Example #2 Dolphins have amazing minds and memories. Sometimes groups of dolphins who haven't seen each other in a long time will greet each other like old friends. Unfortunately, their strong memories can sometimes cause them more harm than good. If a dolphin is involved in a traumatic event, like getting tangled in a net or put in captivity, it is hard for it to recover. The emotional stress and memories from the event can stay with a dolphin for life. Which is the main idea of this paragraph? • Dolphins are very intelligent animals. • Dolphins have bad dreams about captivity. • Dolphins are the smartest ocean animal. • Dolphins live in the deep ocean.
Main Idea Example #3 Still, people saw ways to improve the record player. Most early record players sent sound out through a big horn to make their recordings louder. Many people felt the sound didn't come out loud enough, so other inventors figured out ways to use electricity to make the sound louder. These speakers became so powerful that a single record player could provide music to huge rooms full of people, just as they do today. Based on the topic sentence, the main idea of this paragraph is the ways the record player was improved. Which detail best supports this main idea? • A single record player could provide music to huge rooms full of people. • Most early record players sent sound out through a big horn to make their recordings louder. • Many people felt the sound didn't come out loud enough, so other inventors figured out ways to use electricity to make the sound louder. • Still, people saw ways to improve the record player.
Example #2 Based on the topic sentence, the main idea of this paragraph is the ways the record player was improved. Which detail best supports this main idea? • A single record player could provide music to huge rooms full of people. • Most early record players sent sound out through a big horn to make their recordings louder. • Many people felt the sound didn't come out loud enough, so other inventors figured out ways to use electricity to make the sound louder. • Still, people saw ways to improve the record player.
Summarizing Example #1 We know to wash our hands before eating dinner and after using the bathroom, but what about after handling pet food? Say you’re running late again, and just as you head for the door, you remember Fido still needs his breakfast. After serving him a hearty scoop of kibble, you’re in the car and on the freeway, and along for the ride may be the foodborne bacteria Salmonella. Salmonella bacteria live in the intestines of animals, including cows, pigs, and chickens. Meat, poultry, and egg products used in both your food and your pet's food can be contaminated with Salmonella during processing or handling. When you, your family, or your pets touch or eat raw, undercooked, or improperly processed meat, poultry, and egg products, there is the potential for foodborne illness caused by Salmonella. How can you summarize the supporting details from this part of the text? • When you, your family, or your pets touch or eat raw, undercooked, or improperly processed meat, poultry, and egg products, there is the potential for foodborne illness caused by Salmonella. • Meat, poultry, and egg products used in both your food and your pet's food can be contaminated with Salmonella during processing or handling. • Salmonella is a potentially harmful bacteria that can be found in many of our foods if improperly cooked. • Feeding your pets in the morning can lead to Salmonella contamination.
Summarizing Example #2 How can you summarize the supporting details from this part of the text? In the kitchen, clean surfaces often and keep raw food separate from other food. There are several ways you can avoid getting sick from Salmonella. Wash your hands after touching raw meat and poultry and after handling eggs and egg products. The spread of Salmonella is preventable if you take certain precautions. There are several ways you can avoid getting sick from Salmonella: • Wash your hands after touching raw meat and poultry and after handling eggs and egg products. • Wash your hands after touching pet food and pet treats. • In the kitchen, clean surfaces often and keep raw food separate from other food. • Refrigerate food promptly. • Cook all food to proper temperatures. FoodSafety.gov has a chart of the safe minimum cooking temperatures for various foods, along with other great tips on how to keep your food safe. Washing your hands with warm, soapy water after handling pet food is the best way to reduce your risk of foodborne illness from contaminated pet food. Washing your hands is also the best way to reduce your risk of passing foodborne illness on to others. So please take time to wash your hands after feeding Fido, even on rushed weekday mornings.
RI.5.3 – Relationships & Interactions • You will sometimes be asked to explain the interactions or relationships between: • people • events • ideas • concepts • Interactions or Relationships include: • cause/effect • sequence of events • compare/contrast • problem/solution • person/event
Example #1 Which of the following explanations best describes how the relationship between Rudyard Kipling and his daughter, Josephine, influenced his career? Kipling's daughter was his inspiration for publishing many of his children's stories. Kipling's daughter always wanted him to tell his stories "just so," which kept him from changing details that she remembered. Kipling and his daughter were very close, and he was her favorite storyteller. Kipling's lonely childhood motivated him to write stories that would entertain children. Because his childhood was so lonely, the author Rudyard Kipling spent much of his adult life in the company of children. Some of his best known books were written for kids, including Kim and The Jungle Book. When his daughter Josephine was old enough, he began to tell her wonderful stories at bedtime. Josephine never let him change the stories. She always wanted Kipling to tell them "just so.“ Sadly, Kipling's daughter Josephine came down with pneumonia and died when she was only six years old. To honor her memory, Kipling published these bedtime stories so that children all over the world could enjoy them just as Josephine had.
Example #2 Which of the following points would be most important to include in your explanation of Vespucci's role in discovering and recognizing America as a continent? Vespucci was an important Italian explorer, financier, navigator, and cartographer. Christopher Columbus believed that what is now America was part of Asia. America got its name from the Latin version of Vespucci's first name. Vespucci proved that what is now known as America is not part of Asia. Amerigo Vespucci (March 9, 1454 – February 22, 1512) was an Italian explorer, financier, navigator, and cartographer who first demonstrated that Brazil and the West Indies did not represent Asia's easternmost border, as was initially concluded from Columbus' voyages. Instead, with thanks to Vespucci, people realized that there was an entirely separate landmass that had been unknown up until this point. The New World came to be termed "America," getting its name from Americus, the Latin version of Vespucci's first name.
RI.5.4 – Determine the Meaning of Words in Text • Using context clues means using the information around the word you do not know. • These words help you find what it means. • You can also use the information in the rest of the paragraph to help you figure out what the word means.
Reading LiteratureStandards RL.5.1 – Inferences RL.5.3 – Compare/Contrast Story Elements RL.5.5 – Text Structures
RL.5.1 – Making Inferences • Sometimes the author does not tell you exactly what is happening. This means that you have to figure things out on your own. • When you do this, you make an inference. • An inference is a logical guess about something in a story. • A conclusion is an overall decision that you make after reading a passage.
RL.5.3 – Compare/Contrast Story Elements • Story Elements • Setting • Characters • Plot – events of the story • Problem/Conflict & Solution • Find the similarities and differences between two or more stories.
RL.5.5 – Text Structure • Literature Text Structures: • Prose – sentences & paragraphs • Books & novels, dialogue in quotations • Drama – scenes & acts • Cast of characters, stage directions, dialogue not in quotations • Poetry – lines & stanzas • Rhyme, rhythm
Example #1 How is this text structured? • Sequential • Cause/Effect • Compare/Contrast • Descriptive
Example #3 Because Spanish is spoken in so many different countries, it has evolved to included different dialects. Generally speaking, the biggest division is between Castilian Spanish (spoken in central and northern Spain) and Latin American Spanish (spoken in the New World). In Castilian Spanish, the letter z and the letter c are often pronounced like th, whereas in Latin American Spanish they are pronounced like the letter s. Pronouns are also used differently, with Castilian Spanish using vosotros while Latin American Spanish uses ustedes. Even the vocabulary varies between these two dialects (and even between different countries and communities). However, if you have a solid grasp of one variety of Spanish, you will still be able to communicate with Spanish-speakers wherever you travel. Is this text organized using a compare and contrast structure? • yes, because it explains how two varieties of Spanish are similar and different • yes, because it provides lots of details about Spanish • no, because it does not compare two or more topics • no, because it does not explain why the differences in the language occur
English/Grammar Standards FL.5.6a – Conjunctions, Interjections, & Prepositions FL.5.6e – Correlative Conjunctions FL.5.6f – Commas in a Series FL. 5.6g – Introductory Elements FL.5.6h – Yes/No, Tag Questions FL.5.7 – Punctuating Titles
FL.5.6a – Conjunctions, Prepositions, Interjections • Conjunctions are words that connect two words or thoughts in a sentence. - They connect: adjectives, phrases and main clauses. -Example: It is a cold and rainy day. • Prepositions are words that show relationships, such a point in time, to tell about direction, or to show where something is. - a prepositional phrase is a group of words that begin with a preposition. • Interjections are words or phrases that shows excitement or emotion. An exclamation mark is used at the end of the word or phrase.
Conjunction Examples • Example 1: Patrick thought he had a good chance of making the team, for he had practiced. - For is the conjunction within the sentence. Notice that there is a comma before the conjunction. • Example 2 (Your turn): Where is the conjunction within the sentence? -Freddy was so sick he didn't want to play, nor did he want to eat.
Preposition Example: • Example 1: What is the preposition in the sentence? What is the prepositional phrase? -The mouse hid behind the desk. * In this sentence the preposition is behind. The prepositional phrase is behind the desk. • Example 2: What is the preposition in the sentence? What is the prepositional phrase? - The acorns fell to the ground.
Interjection Examples • Example 1: Wow! That's wonderful news! - Wow, is an interjection! • Example 2 : Which sentence uses the interjection correctly. A. Ouch, that cut me. B. Oh man! I forgot my homework! C. Ugh. I don't like to write. D. Wow: What a show!
FL.5.6e – Correlative Conjunctions • Some conjunctions combine with other words to form correlative conjunctions. • They always come in pairs!!!! • Examples: Either-or Neither-Nor Both-and Not only-but also Whether-or
Examples: • Both my sister and my brother played a game with me. - In the sentence the correlative conjunction is both-and. • Your turn! Pick the best way to use the correlative conjunctions within the sentences. I might want a cake for my birthday. But, I might want cupcakes for my birthday instead. A. I want either a cake or cupcakes for my birthday. B. I want not only a cake but also cupcakes for my birthday. C. I want neither a cake nor cupcakes for my birthday.
FL.5.6f – Items in a Series • Commas are used to separate items in a series. • 3 makes a series!!!!!!!
Examples : • Example 1: Do you want strawberry, vanilla, or chocolate ice cream? - In this example we are listing 3 ice cream flavors so there needs to be a comma in between each flavor to separate them. • Example 2:A sundae comes with sprinkles, whipped cream, and a cherry. - In this example we are listing 3 toppings for ice cream. Again we need a comma in between the toppings to separate them from the rest of the sentence.
FL.5.6g – Introductory Elements • Commas are used to separate an introductory element, such as a word or phrase, from the rest of the sentence. • Yes • First • Well • Next
FL.5.6h – Yes/No, Tag Questions, Direct Address • In a Yes/No tag use a comma to set off the words yes and no when they come at the beginning of a sentence. • In a tag question use a comma to set off a tag question from the rest of the sentence. • Use a comma to set off a noun of a direct address.
Examples • Yes/No: 1. Yes, I love lemonade. 2. No, I don't want ice. • Tag question: 1. You want a glass of lemonade, don't you? • Direct Address 1. Lisa, do you want extra sugar in your lemonade? 2. Lemonade for you, Max?
FL.5.7 – Context Clues • There are 3 types of context clues: 1. Direct Definition- usually follows right behind the word. 2. Synonym- look for something in the Sentence that has a similar meaning To the unknown word. 3. Antonym -look for something in the Sentence that has a different meaning To the unknown word. BE THE DETECTIVE!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!
Examples • EXAMPLE ANTONYM • Joe was reluctant to take the job of captain of the team. He was afraid that the time it would take would hurt his grades. On the other hand, Billy was eager for the chance to be the team captain. • In this sentence the words “on the other hand” and “eager” tell us that Billy feels the opposite of Joe, therefore, reluctant means uncertain or cautious. • EXAMPLE SYNONYM • After seeing the picture of the starving children, we felt compassion or pity for their suffering. • In this sentence the word “pity” tells us that compassion means to have understanding for.