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Chapter 5 PowerPoint Presentation

Chapter 5

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Chapter 5

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  1. Chapter 5 The Motherboard

  2. You Will Learn… • About the types of motherboards • About components on the motherboard • A basic procedure for building a computer • How to install a motherboard • How to troubleshoot a motherboard

  3. Motherboards • House the CPU • Allow all devices to communicate with the motherboard and with each other • Determine capabilities and limitations of the system

  4. Types of Motherboards

  5. Types of Motherboards

  6. CPU and its chip set System clock ROM BIOS CMOS configuration chip and its battery RAM RAM cache (optional) System bus with expansion slots Jumpers and DIP switches Ports directly on the board Power supply connections Main Components on a Motherboard

  7. Field Replaceable Units (FRUs) • CPU • ROM BIOS chip • CMOS battery • RAM • RAM cache

  8. Typical AT Motherboard

  9. Typical ATX Motherboard

  10. Selection of a Motherboard Determines… • CPU types and speeds • Chip set on the board • Memory cache type and size • Types and number of expansion slots: ISA, PCI, and AGP • Type of memory: ECC, EDO, SDRAM, SIMMs, or DIMMs • Type of memory: what kind of and how much SRAM and DRAM continued…

  11. Selection of a Motherboard Determines… • Type of case • ROM BIOS • Type of keyboard connector • Presence/absence of proprietary video and/or proprietary local bus slots • Presence/absence of IDE adapters and SCSI controller • Presence/absence of COM ports, LPT ports, and mouse port

  12. Considerations When Selecting a System Board • Support the CPU you plan to use? • Type of BIOS? • Bus speeds and type of memory; memory capacity? • Use many embedded devices? • Fit the case? • Support legacy cards? • Warranty? How much manufacturer support? • How extensive and user-friendly is documentation?

  13. Major Manufacturers o Motherboards

  14. The System Clock • Keeps the beat for motherboard activities • Frequency is measured in megahertz (MHz) • Wait state • Occurs when the CPU must wait for another component

  15. How the CPU Works • Input/output (I/O) unit • Manages data and instructions entering and leaving the CPU • Arithmetic logic units (ALUs) • Do all comparisons and calculations • Control unit • Manages all activities inside the CPU itself

  16. How the CPU Works

  17. Attributes Used to Rate CPU • CPU speed measured in gigahertz • Efficiency of programming code • Number of transistors • Number of registers • Word size • Data path continued…

  18. Attributes Used to Rate CPU • Maximum number of memory addresses • Amount of memory included with the CPU • Multiprocessing ability • Special functionality

  19. The Pentium and Its Competitors • Pentium processor is a true multiprocessor (has two ALUs) • Terminology • Bus speed • Processor speed • The multiplier • Memory cache

  20. The Pentium and Its Competitors

  21. Types of Pentium CPUs continued…

  22. Types of Pentium CPUs

  23. Pentium III

  24. Pentium 4

  25. Competitors of Advanced Pentiums

  26. VIA C3 Processor

  27. AMD Athlon Processor

  28. Intel Itaniums • The next-generation processor • Intel’s first 64-bit processor for microcomputers • Designed for high-end enterprise servers • Uses a new instruction set called the EPIC (explicitly parallel instruction computing) architecture

  29. Intel Itaniums

  30. CPU Heat Sinksand Cooling Fans • Heat sinks • Used by older CPUs to pull heat away from the CPU • Clip-on devices that mount on top of the CPU • Cooling fans • Keep temperatures below the Intel maximum limit of 185 degrees F/85 degrees C

  31. CPU Cooling Fan

  32. CPU Cooling Fan

  33. SECC (Single Edge Contact Cartridge) SECC2 (Single Edge Contact Cartridge, version 2) SEP (Single Edge Processor) PPGA (Plastic Pin Grid Array) PGA (Pin Grid Array) OOI/OLGA (Organic Land Grid Array) FC-PGA (Flip Chip Pin Grid Array) FC-PGA2 (Flip Chip Pin Grid Array 2) PAC (Pin Array Cartridge) CPU Packages

  34. Plastic Pin Grid Array

  35. CPU Slots and Sockets continued…

  36. CPU Slots and Sockets

  37. CPU Slots and Sockets • The physical connection used to connect the CPU to the system board • Slots 1 and 2 are proprietary Intel slots • Slot A is a proprietary AMD slot • Current CPU sockets are called zero insertion force (ZIF) sockets and have a small lever on the side of the socket that lifts the CPU up and out of the socket

  38. CPU Slots and Sockets

  39. CPU Voltage Regulator • Dual-voltage CPUs • Single-voltage CPUs

  40. CPU Voltage Regulator

  41. The Chip Set • Set of chips on the system board that collectively controls the memory cache, external buses, and some peripherals • Intel dominates the market • Most compatible with Pentium family of CPUs • Investment in R&D has led to other developments (eg, PCI bus, universal serial bus, AGP, and Accelerated Hub Architecture)

  42. “E” chipset family Intel i800 Series Orion Natoma Triton III Triton II Triton I Intel Chip Sets

  43. Intel 800 Series of Chip Sets

  44. Chip Set Manufacturers

  45. ROM BIOS • Flash ROM allows the ROM BIOS to be upgraded without changing the ROM chip

  46. Sample Web Site for Flash ROM BIOS Upgrades

  47. Buses and Expansion Slots • Today’s PCs have four or five buses, each with different speeds, access methods, and protocols • Bus evolution • So many buses because single speed is not practical • A bus carries electrical power, control signals, memory addresses, and data • On-board ports

  48. Buses Listed by Throughput

  49. Relationship of CPU Speed to Bus Speed • When the multiplier that determines CPU speed is large, overall performance of system is not as good as when multiplier is small • Change the speed of a computer by • Changing speed of system bus, or • Changing multiplier that determines speed of CPU