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Drugs. Chapter 11. Outline. Who Uses Drugs? Types of Drugs Drug Misuse & Abuse Routes of Administration Factors Influencing the Effects of Drugs CNS Stimulants CNS Depressants. Opioids Hallucinogens Inhalants Cannibinoids Controlled Substance Act Demand Reduction Strategies. Drugs.

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  1. Drugs Chapter 11

  2. Outline • Who Uses Drugs? • Types of Drugs • Drug Misuse & Abuse • Routes of Administration • Factors Influencing the Effects of Drugs • CNS Stimulants • CNS Depressants • Opioids • Hallucinogens • Inhalants • Cannibinoids • Controlled Substance Act • Demand Reduction Strategies

  3. Drugs • Drug: Substances other than food that affects the structure or function of the body through its chemical action • Examples? • Psychoactive drug: Substance that can alter a person’s consciousness or experiences • Examples, legal and illegal? • Drug of abuse: Medical drug used for nonmedical (recreational) purposes or a drug that has no medical uses • Substance: Drug of abuse, a medication, or a toxin; the term is used interchangeably with drug • All drugs have the potential to be toxic, poisonous, dangerous, or deadly

  4. Types of Drugs • Legal drugs • Pharmaceutical drugs, including over-the-counter • Herbal medications • Illicit drugs • Illegal to process, manufacture, sell or use • Licit versus illicit…or both?

  5. Drug Misuse and Abuse • Drug misuse • Use of prescription drugs for purposes other than those which they prescribed or in greater amounts than prescribed • Drug abuse • Maladaptive pattern of use leading to impairment or distress that continues despite serious negative consequences • Abuse versus dependence • Dependence is a condition characterized by a strong craving for a drug and by compulsive use of the drug despite serious negative consequences

  6. Routes of Administration • Orally • Injection • Usually involves a hypodermic needle delivered into the bloodstream by: • Intravenous injection • Intramuscular injection • Subcutaneous injection • Inhalation • Application to skin or mucous membranes • Dermal absorption (topical) • Transdermal absorption (patch)

  7. Factors Influencing the Effects of Drugs • Physical condition • Mood • Experience with the drug • Expectations • Environment • Atmosphere in which the drug was taken • Drug • What is the drugs intended purpose? • How much? • How often? • How recent? • Person • Age • Gender • Body weight

  8. Effects of Drugs on the Brain • Act on neurons in three brain structures • Ventral tegmental area (VTA) • Nucleus accumbens • Prefrontal cortex • Pleasure and reward circuit • Normal pleasure experienced when a physical, emotional, or survival need is met • Behavior reinforcement • Addictive drugs activate this same pathway

  9. Drugs of Abuse • CNS stimulants • CNS depressants • Opioids • Hallucinogens • Inhalants • Cannabiniods

  10. CNS Stimulants • Speed up activity in the brain and sympathetic nervous system, similar to the fight-or-flight reaction • General effects • Increased HR • Increased respiration • Increased muscle tension • Heightened senses • Increased alertness • Talkative, fidgety, excessive movement

  11. Stimulant: Cocaine • Effects: • Accelerated heart rate, blood pressure • Sense of euphoria • Talkativeness, sociability, sense of grandiosity • Routes of administration: • Snorting • Intravenous injection • Freebasing Crack • Dependence can develop after 1st use...especially when smoked or injected.

  12. Stimulant: Cocaine Signs of Use Health Consequences • Excessive energy • Lack of focus • Irritability • Runny nose/nasal problems • Dilated pupils • Dry mouth • Cardiac arrhythmias • Respiratory distress • Bizarre or violent behavior • Psychosis • Convulsions • Seizures • Coma • Death

  13. Stimulant: Amphetamines • Medical uses • To open nasal passages and bronchioles • Treatment of narcolepsy • Treatment of depression • Suppression of appetite for weight loss • ADHD (two types: inattentive & impulsive/hyperactive) • Methamphetamines • Similar chemical structure yet more addictive and dangerous

  14. Stimulant: Methamphetamines • Effects: • Increased alertness & energy • Talkativeness • Wakefulness • Loss of appetite • Routes of Administration: • Snorted • Smoked • Created in illegal make-shift labs

  15. Stimulant: Methamphetamines Signs of Use Health Consequences • Excessive activity and energy • Irritability and argumentativeness • Lack of interest in food or sleep • Overconfidence • Decayed teeth • Acne, oily skin • Severe weight loss • Cardiovascular damage • Increased risk of heart attack and stroke • Extensive tooth decay and loss • Psychosis

  16. Meth Mouth

  17. Meth Mouth

  18. Methamphetamine Epidemic 3 months

  19. Methamphetamine Epidemic 17 months

  20. Methamphetamine Epidemic 3 years, 5 months http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=4dcGsbnXdBQ&feature=related

  21. Meth and the Brain http://www.youtube.com/user/NationalGeographic#p/search/1/at3Sg6qvgTE

  22. Stimulant: MDMA • AKA: Ecstasy • Mixture of methamphetamines and hallucinogens • Increase serotonin • Effects: • Energy • Euphoria • Empathy/closeness to those around you • Signs of Use: • Sweating • Dilated pupils • Dry mouth • Involuntary teeth clenching • Health Consequences: • Dehydration • Heart & kidney failure • Depression • Sleep disturbances • Paranoia • Impaired cognitive functioning

  23. Stimulant: Caffeine • At low doses (ex: 2 cups of coffee) • Alertness, restlessness, gastrointestinal distress, frequent urination • Extreme doses (ex:10 cups of coffee) • Irregular heart beat, insomnia, pacing, rambling speech • Tolerance: Headaches, fatigue, irritability http://www.cspinet.org/new/cafchart.htm

  24. CNS: Depressants • Effects: Slows down or depresses the CNS • Barbiturates & Hypnotics • Effects: Lethargy, drowsiness, impaired judgment and problem solving, slurred speech • Withdrawal can symptoms include anxiety, insomnia, tremors, and nausea • Anti-Anxiety Drugs • Benzodiazepines, Xanax, Valium • Rebound effect • Rohypnol “roofies” & GHB • Confusion, loss of memory, and possible loss of consciousness

  25. Opioids Chinese Opium Den • Made from the seed of a poppy plant • Opium use can be traced back to the Neolithic age (new stone age) • Poppy capsules found in burial sites • Long history of medical use (pain relief, diarrhea, and dehydration) • Low dose effects: • Euphoria, drowsiness, pupil constriction, slurred speech • High dose effects: • Depressed respiration, loss of consciousness, coma, death https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=RG2keYgBiZc&feature=results_main&playnext=1&list=PLFA9016495A1233EB

  26. Opioids – Narcotics • Route of administration: • Can be smoked, snorted, injected or taken orally • Withdrawal: • Anxiety, restlessness, insomnia, muscle aches, diarrhea • Narcotics: • Morphine • Synthetic opioids: Oxycontin, Vicodin • Heroin – 3x more potent than morphine with high rates of death, AIDS, and collapsed veins

  27. Hallucinogens • Alter perceptions and thinking, intensifying and distorting visual and auditory perceptions • LSD (lysergic acid diethylamide) • Potent, odorless, colorless, tasteless • “Trips” can last hours or even days • Panic and anxiety during “bad trips” • No physiological withdrawal symptoms • PCP – phencyclidine “angel dust” • Linked to aggression • Insensitivity to pain = ER visits

  28. Inhalants • Breathable chemicals vapors that alter consciousness • Solvents, aerosols, gases, nitrates • Huffing and bagging • Effects: • Light headedness, dizziness, slurred speech, euphoria • Long term brain damage • Sudden death

  29. Cannabinoids - Marijuana • Over 14 million users in the U.S. • Effects: • Mild euphoria, sedation, distorted perceptions, short-term memory impairments increased HR, paranoia • Some withdrawal, but mainly a psychological dependence • Still considered a schedule I substance

  30. Drugs of Abuse - Controlled Substance Act • Heroin, LSD, Marijuana • Morphine, Cocaine, Adderall • Anabolic steroids, codeine, Tylenol with hydrocodone • Darvon, Valium, Xanax • Cough medicines with codeine

  31. Supply Reduction Strategies • Interdiction: Interception of drugs before they get into the country • Pressure supplying countries to suppress production and exportation • Prevent domestic production and selling via law enforcement

  32. Demand Reduction Strategies • Incarceration for drug-related crimes • Prevention strategies through education • Primary Prevention • Secondary Prevention • Tertiary Prevention • Drug treatment programs • Narcotics Anonymous (NA) http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=nPgMd_C83pw&feature=related

  33. Harm Reduction Strategies • Focuses on helping addicts reduce the harm associated with drug use, including: • Needle exchange programs • Drug substitute programs (ex: methadone instead of heroin) • Medicalization • Decriminalization http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=veyE-gEX4p4&feature=related

  34. For Next Time: • Interview Assignment • Chapter 12

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