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Providing Tier II and Tier III Support to Secondary Students

Providing Tier II and Tier III Support to Secondary Students

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Providing Tier II and Tier III Support to Secondary Students

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  1. Providing Tier II and Tier III Support to Secondary Students Teri Lewis Oregon State University

  2. Brief Organizer • Secondary School Context and Issues • Review the purpose of secondary interventions • Provide examples of Tier II and Tier III interventions

  3. Prerequisites • Effective & proactive universal system as foundation • Evidence Based Practices • On-going data-based decision-making • Teach basic (general case) before specialized skills

  4. “Values” • Student centered, team-based planning • Strength-based • Unconditional support • Culturally competent, individualized accommodation & planning • Environmental enhancements for success for all • Data-based decision making • School-based, systems perspective

  5. NCES 2007/8 • During the 2007-08 school year, 85% of public schools recorded that one or more crime related incident • About 2.0 million crimesor 43 crimes per 1,000 students • In 2006, about 1 out of every 14 students (or 7%) was suspended from school at least once during the year • Schools reported that the major limitations to reduce or prevent crime were: • Inadequate alternative placements for disruptive students • Inadequate funds • Policies related to disciplining special education students

  6. However, • In 2007/8 a smaller percentage of teachers reported being threatened by a student • 7% compared to 12% (93-94) and 9% (99-00) • And, the percent of students who feared attack or harm at school decreased to 5% • From 12% (1995)

  7. Common Response • Increase monitoring and Supervision • Restate rules & sanctions • Pay more attention to problem behavior • Refer disruptive to office, suspend, expel ODR Suspension Drop Out

  8. Punishment works in the short-term • Remove student • Relieve ourselves and others • Attribute responsibility for change to student &/or others (family)

  9. However, not in the long-term • Punishment-induced Aggression • Punishment practices, when used alone, promote more antisocial behavior (Mayer,1991; Skiba &Peterson, 1999) • Vandalism, aggression, truancy, dropout • Impairs child-adult relationships and attachment to schooling • Weakens academic outcomes and maintains antisocial trajectory

  10. Why students disengage from schooling? • Problems with teacher relationships • Chronic suspension or expulsion • Punitive discipline practices • Poor grades • Not liking school • Peers dropping out • Can’t get into desired programs • Pregnancy/parenthood • Need to support family

  11. Questions to ask of your discipline policy. • Encourage students to accept responsibility for their behavior? • Teach alternative ways to behave? • Place high value on academic engagement and achievement? • Focus on restoring the environment and social relationships in the school?

  12. Secondary school challenges • Some Student less prepared (academics and behavior) • Class disruption and non-compliance • Attendance, tardy and drop-out rates • Bullying and harassment • Depression, suicide, substance use/abuse • Students report feeling unsafe while at school • Parents do not feel their children are safe while at school or in surrounding neighborhoods

  13. Common Challenges • “Buy-in”, • Scheduling or the ability to get people together • Establishing consistency across staff • Lack of data on high schools • Funding. This impacted scheduling, as schools were not able to fund release time for staff to meet and develop materials, or have teams meet

  14. Function-based Approach • A systematic process for developing statements about factors that • contribute to occurrence & maintenance of problem behavior, & • more importantly, serve as basis for developing proactive & comprehensive behavior support plans.

  15. Academic Systems Behavioral Systems • Intensive, Individual Interventions • Individual Students • Assessment-based • High Intensity • Intensive, Individual Interventions • Individual Students • Assessment-based • Intense, durable procedures • Targeted Group Interventions • Some students (at-risk) • High efficiency • Rapid response • Targeted Group Interventions • Some students (at-risk) • High efficiency • Rapid response • Universal Interventions • All students • Preventive, proactive • Universal Interventions • All settings, all students • Preventive, proactive 3-Tiered Prevention Model 1-5% 1-5% 5-10% 5-10% 80-90% 80-90%

  16. PBS DPS at TheDragonWay

  17. SWIS DATA – Office Discipline Referrals (No Minors)

  18. SWIS DATA –Minors Only

  19. SWIS DATA – Office Discipline Referrals (No Minors)

  20. Promoting: Pulling in the Community

  21. Educat ion The Matrix JH/HS 7-12

  22. Behavior Intervention • We developed a method of positively reinforcing expected • behaviors through the use of our “I Spy” pads.

  23. Behavior Intervention • “I Spy” slips can be accumulated by the students and redeemed by the students for prizes.

  24. Behavior Intervention

  25. Behavior Intervention: Positive Parent Contacts

  26. Comparing the Data • 1,396 in 03/04 • 875 in 04/05 • 362 in 05/06 • Decrease of 74% in 2 years

  27. Tier II and III Interventions:Important Considerations Part of a continuum – bridge between universal and tertiary Efficient and effective way to identify skills, students and groupings Incorporated within and across students day

  28. Tier II - Secondary

  29. Themes • Intervention is continuously available • Rapid access to intervention (less than a week) • Very low effort by teachers • Efficient and effective way to identify students • Assessment = simple sort • Intervention matched to presenting problem but not highly individualized

  30. However, • There is a difference between how to teach and what to teach • How = EBP guidelines • Social skills, self-management, daily monitoring, contracts, academic support • What = skill identification, types and range of groups/programs

  31. Basic Intervention Types • Social-Behavioral Concerns • Social skills • Self-management • Academic Concerns • Peer Tutors • Check in • Homework club362 in 03/04 • Emotional Concerns • Adult mentors

  32. Review existing options

  33. School Overview • Suburban Pacific Northwest • Students • 9th-12th grades • 1080 students • 17% Minority • 10% Special Education • 17% Free/Reduced lunch • Faculty • 31.5 general education, • 3.0 special education • 2.67 administration • 3. 0 Counselors, • 0.5 School to Career

  34. Advisor Period • Establish school culture: • Adult mentor/connection • Same advisor all four years • Teach expectations • Disseminate information • Once each week (20 minutes) • Examples • Hallway (lesson plan) • Dress code

  35. Hallways- Beyond the Lesson • Opened a student lounge • Established eating and/or congregating areas • Cafeteria, library, computer, lounge, student store, “food friendly classrooms • Asked staff to supervise beginning and end of prep period • Administration and campus support increased supervision • Posters of expectations and established areas

  36. Lessons Learned • Didn’t get adequate student buy-in before implementation • Upper classman felt like their “lives were ruined” • Staff supervision early (first month) was good, then dropped off • Tardy remained one of their highest ODRs

  37. Student Tardy Survey

  38. Students- Reported Tardies per Quarter

  39. Staff – What counts as Tardy?

  40. Tier III - Tertiary

  41. WHY DO FBA? • To enhance effectiveness, efficiency, & relevance of behavior support plan development & implementation • Not to determine eligibility, placement, or manifest determination….at least directly

  42. Problem • Many school districts view FBA as a legal mandate with which to comply, rather than an instructional process to ameliorate problem behavior. • One of the biggest challenges is the preparation of school-based teams. (Lane, Barton-Arwood, Spencer & Kalberg, 2007) • VanAcker, Boreson & Patterton (2005) found that most teams had less than required team members and often failed to take function into consideration when developing interventions

  43. There is a strong resistance within general education to retain students with disruptive and/or inappropriate behavior. (e.g., Gale, Hendrickson & Rutherford, 1991; Lewis, 1994) • And when schools do address studentproblems behaviors they frequently rely on negative consequences(e.g., Colvin, Sugai & Kameenui, 1993)

  44. However, • FBA-indicated interventions, those that consider function, are more effective than interventions that don’t(Ingram, Lewis-Palmer & Sugai, 2005). • And that schools are able to implement function-based support with technical assistance from consultants (Kamps, Wendland & Culpepper, 200); Lane, Barton-Arwood, Spencer & Kalberg, 2007

  45. Necessary components • Problem behavior • verbal aggression, profanity, compliance • Triggering antecedent (before) • request related to difficult academic task • Maintaining consequence (after) • avoid difficult task, get away from teacher making request • Setting events • lack of peer contact in previous 30 minutes

  46. Collect Information to determine function. • Develop testable hypothesis or summary statements and indicate functions. • Collect direct observation data to confirm summary statement. • Identify desired and acceptable replacement behaviors. • Develop behavior intervention plan. • Develop comprehensive BIP to ensure high fidelity implementation. • Develop on-going monitoring system. Steps in an FBA