Food Plants - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

food plants n.
Download
Skip this Video
Loading SlideShow in 5 Seconds..
Food Plants PowerPoint Presentation
Download Presentation
Food Plants

play fullscreen
1 / 41
Food Plants
413 Views
Download Presentation
heaton
Download Presentation

Food Plants

- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - E N D - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
Presentation Transcript

  1. Food Plants

  2. Zea mays subsp. mexicana Zea mays subsp. mays

  3. Cross section of corn leaf

  4. Cross section of corn leaf showing C-4 pathway

  5. The One Food Problem

  6. Cliff House at Mesa Verde – circa 1200 AD

  7. Beginnings of the Anasazi • During their so-called Archaic Period (5500 - 100 BCE) the Anasazi were hunter-gatherers - they lived mostly on roasted seeds of Indian grass (Oryzopsis sp.), cattails (Typha lattifolia), salt bush (Atriplex canescens - Chenopodiaceae), and sheep sorrel (Rumex acetosella - Polygonaceae); Rabbits and a few deer provided the bulk of the animal protein in the diet - they lived mostly in caves or in depressions with simple coverings made of juniper branches (Juniperus scopulorum - Cupressaceae)

  8. Oryzopsis sp. – Indian ricegrass

  9. Atriplex canescens - saltbush

  10. Typha latifolia - cattail

  11. Rumex acetosella – sheep sorrel

  12. Changes to Anasazi life • About 100 BCE, maize plants arrived and Anasazi life began to change - at first the Anasazi did not adopt maize except as a novelty • About 100 BCE, Anasazi made a change to the so called Basket Maker II lifestyle in which they made baskets, sandals, and nets woven from yucca fibers (Yucca baccata - Agavaceae)

  13. Yucca baccata

  14. Anasazi yucca products

  15. Basket Maker III • Basket maker III was from about 400 - 700 AD - here they became much more agricultural - probably due to the arrival of beans Phaseolus vulgaris (pinto and kidney beans) and P. acutifolius (tepary or pavi beans) • The Anasazi began to select maize varieties with larger ears and more productivity • They also begin to experiment with irrigation and developed or acquired bows and arrows

  16. Phaseolus vulgaris – pinto, kidney beans

  17. Phaseolus acutifolius – tepary or pavi bean

  18. Pueblo I • Pueblo I lasted from 700-900 AD - here the Anasazi adopted an increasingly sedentary lifestyle with advances in basketry and pottery, cotton was used for cloth, dwellings were made of stone above ground with pit houses transformed into ceremonial kivas • Large stores of grain made higher populations possible and also led to warfare and raiding for grain

  19. Anasazi Runi

  20. Pueblo II and III • Pueblo II (900 - 1100 AD) and Pueblo III ( 1100 - 1300 AD) saw the development of even larger towns and cities, dwellings were built in cliffs for protection - made very sophisticated baskets and pottery, had highly developed irrigation systems - may have used captive turkeys for meat, feeding them on grain • Then from 1276 to 1299 there was 23 years of continuous drought - the Anasazi ultimately abandoned their cities and moved south to better drainage areas - today their descendents survive as the Zuni, Hopi, and Rio Grande Pueblo tribes

  21. Timeline of Anasazi culture

  22. What the Anasazi Left

  23. For Love of the Potato

  24. The Potato Comes to Europe • The potato came to Europe about 1565 - at first, most people in Europe, including the Irish, used the potato as a back up for grain production, but by the end of the 17th century, it had become an important winter food; by the mid-eighteenth century it was a general field crop and provided the staple diet of small farmers during most of the year

  25. Benefits of the Potato

  26. Van Gogh – The Potato Eaters

  27. Ukrainian Food Potato Pancakes Borsch

  28. Potato Vodka

  29. Severity of blight and famine

  30. Cartoon of Irish “Bogtrotters” circa 1840’s

  31. Young potato plant with early stage of late blight

  32. Dried potato leaf infected with late blight – Phytophthora infestans

  33. Potato tubers with Late blight

  34. Potato field infected with late blight – Infection started in center of field

  35. Irish family diggingPotatoes - 1847

  36. Irish family potato dinner - 1846

  37. Irish food riots - 1847

  38. Irish food sent to England – 1847 or 1848

  39. Lessons learned? “Whatever may be the misfortunes of Ireland, the potato is not implicated. It, on the contrary, has more than done its duty, in giving them bones and sinew cheap ... There is no other crop equal to the potato in the power of sustaining life and health.” - Bain 1848