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How it Began... PowerPoint Presentation
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How it Began...

How it Began...

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How it Began...

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  1. How it Began... Vietnam was a French ruled Colony. Vietnam’s leader, Ho Chi Minh, was trying to get Vietnam’s independence. He wrote letters to multiple American presidents asking for help, including Woodrow Wilson and Truman, though neither responded. In 1945, Ho Chi Minh founded the Democratic Republic of Vietnam. France wanted their old empire back, and Ho Chi Minh stood in his way. Soon, Vietnam was separated into two sides, the north and south, with Ho ruling North Vietnam and South Vietnam leaders were chosen by France. In no time at all, there was civil war in Vietnam between the Communist north and pro-Western south. Map of Vietnam Ho Chi Minh

  2. How the U.S. Got Involved... France needed our help. They asked the United states to help them fight Ho Chi Minh and his forces called the Vietminh. The French said the Ho was a communist, and technically he was. He believed in freedom for his country, but not necessarily the people within it. During this time, the United States wanted to prove that we stood against communism and we were going to fight it. We probably wouldn’t have gotten involved in the affair if Ho wasn’t communist. We began sending military advisers to help the French. Then we began sending money as aid to them as well. We sent $10 million a year in aid to France when Truman was president, and later by 1953 when Eisenhower was president we were sending $400 million a year to France. Soon, we had sent over half a million Americans to Vietnam to fight Ho. President Truman President Eisenhower U.S. soldiers in Vietnam

  3. KEY PEOPLE ...of the United States... Gerald Ford: Vice President Gerald Ford became president after the forced resignation of Richard Nixon in 1974. He is well known for overseeing the United States final withdrawal from Vietnam and the evacuation of thousands of citizens of Vietnam. In spring of 1975, President Ford delivered a speech announcing the official end of the Vietnam era. Dwight D. Eisenhower: President Eisenhower served from 1953 until 1961, the nation’s highest office. During his presidency, he provided vast military aid to France in Vietnam, but wouldn’t commit United States troops there. Lieutenant William Calley: Lieutenant William Calley led the My Lai massacre in March of 1968. He was convicted of murder of hundreds of Vietnamese civilians, and sentenced to life in prison. He himself had rounded up a group of villagers from My Lai, forced them into a ditch, and shot them one by one with a machine gun fire. Upon his appeal, his sentence was reduced and he was eventually released from prison in 1974. John F. Kennedy: Kennedy was elected in 1960 as President of the United States. He tripled the amount of American aid to Vietnam during his presidency, and increased the number of United States advisors there. He and his administrators supported the overthrow of Ngo Dinh Diem, South Vietnam's leader. He was later assassinated in Dallas in 1963. Lyndon Johnson: Vice President Lyndon Johnson because president in 1963, after John F. Kennedy was shot and killed. He became less and less popular with his people as he increased the United State's involvement with Vietnam. In 1963, Johnson announced he reduced bombing campaigns in North Vietnam and that he wouldn't run for a second term. ...continued...

  4. ...of North Vietnam... ...of South Vietnam... Ho Chi Minh: Ho Chi Minh led the Democratic Republic of Vietnam from 1945-1969. In 1941 he declared Vietnam’s independence from France, and led a nearly continuous war against the French and later, the Americans, until he died in 1969. Bao Dai: After briefly joined ranks with Vietnamese communist leader Ho Chi Minh and his Vietminh, only to flee into exile in Hong Kong and France from 1949-1955. He later returned to Vietnam to rule under French control until he was ousted by leader Ngo Dinh Diem of South Vietnam in 1954. Le Duan: Duan was the original founder of the Indochina Communist Party. He served on North Vietnam's Central Committee under Ho Chi Minh. Duan also led the formation of an underground Communist organization in South Vietnam. He became the leader of North Vietnam after Ho Chi Minh died. Ngo Dinh Diem: Ngo Dinh Diem led South Vietnam from 1954-1963, after his refusal to joining Ho Chi Minh’s communist movement. His dictatorial rule, proven by the killing that occurred of hundreds of Buddhists and his refusal to institute land reforms, contributed to increasing popular support for Ho Chi Minh.

  5. The My Lai Massacre The men of the Charlie Company, 11th Brigade, Americal Division were angry and frustrated after many of their members had been maimed or killed in the area of My Lai, Vietnam in the preceding weeks. This anger is what led to the tragic disaster of the My Lai Massacre on March 16, 1968. Under the command of Lieutenant William Calley, the men entered the village of My Lai and began killing innocent villagers. The killing started at 7:30 in the morning, and in just hours more than 500 villagers were murdered. Many were raped before they were killed. Huts that were the homes of the village people were burned and destroyed, livestock was killed, wells were poisoned. It was a disastrous day of grief for the people of My Lai, and a brutal battle. March 16, 1968 Victims of the My Lai massacre.

  6. The Siege of Khe Sanh The Khe Sanh, one of the most remote outposts in Vietnam, had to make an important decision. Either facing a siege by the North Vietnamese Army (NVA) and being captured, or abandoning the base as if no one was ever there, in January of 1968. This particular base was not one to be easily given up by American forces. We decided to stick out the siege and hopefully save the base. On January 21, 1968, the heavily anticipated siege had begun when the NVA launched their attack. The siege lasted 77 days, with 703 American and southern Vietnamese men killed, 2,642 wounded and 7 missing. On the other hand, the NVA lost 10,000-15,000 people killed and wounded. Hill 875 Map of Vietnam

  7. MIA Issue: The Vietnam War Throughout the Vietnam War, many American soldiers were captured, then tortured, in prisons. The worst of these prisons was Hoa Lo. Here, prisoners were beaten with a variety of methods including fists, rubber whips, clubs, and butts of rifles. Hoa Lo Prison The Vietnamese would create numerous amounts of different contraptions to stretch out the prisoners joints and muscles. This would create extreme pain and cause the prisoner to tell the Vietnamese of American military operations. Lastly, prisoners might be tied to a stool and told to sit there for days and days until he would release information. On top of all this, the men were poorly fed and lived in horrible conditions. They were told not to workout as that would make them stronger and less prone to dying from illness which commonly went around. After the war, 591 soldiers were released from these camps because of the prisoner repatriation program. As of 1973 more than 2000 American soldiers remained unaccounted for.

  8. What it was like back home... In the beginning of the Vietnam war, America thought they were doing a great thing, to end communism. It was believed that if Vietnam became a communist country, the rest of southern Asia would soon follow. Our goal was to completely demolish communism everywhere. We feared of another Hitler to attempt to take over the world, resulting in World War III. We were so worried and paranoid of the possibility of this disaster, that we weren't thinking straight. Not long after the first American soldier set foot in Vietnam, people were starting to regret our decision. We were clueless about Vietnam and their people. We were fighting a war that we needn't be involved in. Anti-war protest sprang up all over our nation's colleges. Martin Luther King Jr. also ran protests against war and kept his civil rights protests going as well. Our cities soon erupted with riots. People neglected the city, our public facilities and rights went down the drain. America was fed up with our money going to a useless war. We were even more angered of the sight of our own men dying, suffering, being tortured for something absolutely ridiculous and wasteful as this war. Americans were fed up. ...anti-war protests broke out all over America...

  9. TIMELINE OF THE VIETNAM WAR

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