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ENDOCRINOLOGY

ENDOCRINOLOGY

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ENDOCRINOLOGY

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  1. ENDOCRINOLOGY P. Shyi-Gang Wang, Ph. D. Department of Physiology, School of Medicine National Yang-Ming University Taipei 11221, Taiwan, Republic of China PS Wang/ 2004.05

  2. 王錫崗 教授 • 台灣 台北市北投區(11221)立農街二段155號 • 國立陽明大學醫學院生理學科暨生理學研究所 • Tel: 886-2-28267082 • Fax: 886-2-28264049 • E-mail: pswang@ym.edu.tw

  3. Chapter I. Introduction PS Wang/ 2004.05

  4. Weichert Anatomy of the Chordates 1965 3th ed #662

  5. Weichert Anatomy of the Chordates 1965 3th ed #661

  6. Endocrine Gland Hormone Blood Stream Target Organ Soma Receptors Actions PS Wang/ 2004.05

  7. Hormone a Greek word meaning “stimulate” first used by Bayliss and Starling in 1904 for the finding of secretin PS Wang/ 2004.05

  8. Definition of Hormone • A chemical substance • Produced by ductless gland(s) • Transported by blood stream • Physiological control effects; control of metabolic functions PS Wang/ 2004.05

  9. Physiological Properties of Hormones 1. small amounts (pg~μg) 2. the secretion rate is determined by the need 3. no effect on the source 4. act on soma or target organs 5. as trigger substances 6. may have many effects, e.g. oxytocin PS Wang/ 2004.05

  10. Mono- Hexa- Bi- (Di-) Hepta- Tri- Octa- Tetra- Nona- Penta- Deca- e.g. Tetradecapeptide (14 AA) PS Wang/ 2004.05

  11. Endocrine and Nervous Systems Both are coordinating systems; providing for homeostasis, integration, differentiation, and growth. Comparison N E route wire wireless signals electric impulse chemicals speed fast (msec) slow (sec to days) Neuroendocrinology = CNS + Hypophysis PS Wang/ 2004.05

  12. McDonald Veterinary Endocrinology and Reproduction 1976 2nd ed

  13. Substances from Neurosecretory Cells Neurohumors 1. do not enter the circulation 2. excite the adjacent cells 3. e.g. EP, NE Neurohormones • enter the circulation • excite the target cells • e.g. hypothalamic releasing hormones PS Wang/ 2004.05

  14. - + Regulation of Hormone Secretion Hormone Regulation 1. Feedback: negative and positive A B 2. Three loops (1). long feedback loop: H/P target (2). short feedback loop: H P (3). ultra short feedback loop: H H Nonhormonal Control 1. light 2. stress 3. sleeping 4. feeding 5. others a b PS Wang/ 2004.05

  15. Caligaris, Astrada, & Taleisnik (Argentina), Endocrinology 88:810, 1971

  16. GLUCOSE BETA CELL INSULIN PS Wang/ 2004.05

  17. Chemical Classes of Hormones • Peptide, protein hormones • Amino acid derivatives • Steroids and lipids PS Wang/ 2004.05

  18. Hormones 1. Peptides, Protein Hormones (1). Pituitary Gland (Hypophysis) A. Adenohypophysis a. Pars distalis growth hormone (GH, somatotrophin); Adrenocorticotrophin (ACTH, corticotrophin); Thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH, thyrotrophin); Male: Follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH); Interstitial-cell- stimulating hormones (ICSH, luteinizing hormone, LH); Female: FSH; LH; Prolactin b. Pars intermedia Melanocyte-stimulating hormones (α- and β-MSH, Intermedin) B. Neurohypophysis (posterior lobe) Oxytocin (Let-down factor, milk-ejection factor); Vasopressin (anti- diuretic hormone, ADH) (2). Pancreas Insulin; Glucagon (3). Ovary Relaxin; Inhibin (4). Thyroid Thyrocalcitonin (calcitonin) (5). Parathyroid Parathyroid hormone (6). Kidney Erythropoietin; Renin (7). Stomach and Gastrin; Enterogastrone; Cholecystokinin; Secretin; Duodenum Pancreozymin PS Wang/ 2004.05

  19. 2. Amino Acid Derivatives (1). Thyroid Thyroxin; Triiodothyronine (2). Adrenal Medulla Norepinephrine; Epinephrine (3). Pineal gland Melatonin (4). Argentaffin cells, Sterotonin (5-hydroxy-tryptamine) platelets, nerves 3. Steroids and Lipids (1). Testes Androgen (testosterone) (2). Ovary Estrogen (estradiol-17β) (3). Corpus luteum Progesterone (4). Adrenal cortex Hydrocortisone; Cortisone; Aldosterone (5). Prostate, Seminal Prostaglandins Vesicles, Brain, Nerve PS Wang/ 2004.05

  20. Hypothalamic Hormones Oxytocin --------------------------- 9 A.A., PV. Vasopressin (ADH) ------------- 9 A.A., SO. LHRH (GnRH) ------------------- 10 A.A. FSHRH TRH -------------------------------- 3 A.A. Somatostatin (SRIF) ----------- 14 A.A. GRF PIF (= Dopamine ?) PRF (= TRH or serotonin ?) CRF MIF MRF PS Wang/ 2004.05