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Biology R Midterm Study Guide

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  1. Biology R Midterm Study Guide

  2. Biology Midterm Study Guide 1. On the cell, use arrows to show excretion, transport and respiration. Explain. A: Respiration – shows oxygen entering and carbon dioxide leaving the cell. Transport – shows materials moving around the cell. Excretion – shows food entering and waste leaving the cell

  3. Biology Midterm Study Guide 2. In what structure does cellular respiration occur? What substance is released during cellular respiration? A: Mitochondria. Carbon dioxide is released.

  4. Biology Midterm Study Guide 3. What are the levels of organization in the human body? list from smallest to largest. A: Organelle  Cell  Tissue  Organ  Organ system  Organism!

  5. Biology Midterm Study Guide 4. What is unique about an enzyme? A: Enzymes are chemically specific because of its shape. Shape = Function

  6. Biology Midterm Study Guide 5. How is it possible that an enzyme can act on one substance but not another substance? A: Enzymes are chemically specific and catalyzes only certain reactions.

  7. Biology Midterm Study Guide 6. What is denaturation? A: Distortion (change) of shape of a protein

  8. Biology Midterm Study Guide 7. Why is denaturation harmful to a protein? A: If the shape of a protein is changed, it will not be able to function properly (reactions will not happen/happen as fast)

  9. Biology Midterm Study Guide 8. What two factors can cause the denaturation of a protein? A: temperature and pH

  10. Biology Midterm Study Guide 9. What is the primary source of energy for photosynthesis? A: The sun

  11. Biology Midterm Study Guide 10. What is the primary source of energy for cellular respiration? A: simple sugars (carbohydrates)

  12. Biology Midterm Study Guide 11. During diffusion, materials will move from concentration to concentration. high low

  13. Biology Midterm Study Guide 12. The diagram below shows the relative concentration of molecules inside and outside a cell. Describe the general direction of diffusion across the membrane of this cell? A: Molecule A is in equilibrium (equal concentration. Molecule B will move out of cell (high to low). Molecule C will move out of the cell (or possible will not because it could be too big).

  14. Biology Midterm Study Guide 13. Compare and contrast organs and organelles. A: Organelles carry out functions similar to those of organs. Organelles function on a smaller scale than organs.

  15. Biology Midterm Study Guide 14. The following diagram represents enzyme activity. An organic catalyst is indicated by which letter? A: C is the catalyst because it is not changed by the reaction.

  16. Biology Midterm Study Guide 15. List two organelles that are involved in chemical reactions. Explain what the chemical reaction is that occurs in the organelle and how the chemical reaction is important to the functioning of the organism? A: Mitochondria (cellular respiration, provide energy), Chloroplast (photosynthesis, provides nutrition/food), Lysosomes (digestion, breaks down material to be removed from the cell)

  17. Biology Midterm Study Guide 16. What organelle(s) are only present in plant cells? Explain the function of the organelle(s). A: Cell wall – nonliving supportive structure found outside cell membrane of plants, algae and fungi cells. Chloroplast – site of photosynthesis

  18. Biology Midterm Study Guide 17. What is the volume of the liquid in the graduated cylinder shown below? A: 43.0 mL

  19. Biology Midterm Study Guide 19. A dragon is represented below. Which row in the chart represents the ratio of body length to wingspan of the dragon? A: 1:2

  20. Biology Midterm Study Guide 19. What are the characteristics of a valid experiment? A: 1. Large sample size/many test subjects 2. Can be repeated the same way and get the same results. 3. Performed over long time 4. Test only one independent variable 5. Peer reviewed 6. Test hypothesis and show whether it is supported or rejected 7. Is objective 8. Is legal, ethical

  21. Biology Midterm Study Guide 20. Indicate the movement of iodine (I), glucose (G), and starch (S) over time.

  22. Biology Midterm Study Guide 21. Which molecules are able to move through the semi-permeable membrane? Why? A: Glucose and iodine because it is small enough to move through membrane

  23. Biology Midterm Study Guide 22. Which molecules are not able to move through the semi-permeable membrane? Why? A: Starch because it is too big a molecule to move through the membrane

  24. Biology Midterm Study Guide 26. What is the independent variable in the experiment? A: Salt concentration (is being manipulated by the scientists and on the x-axis)

  25. Biology Midterm Study Guide 27. What is the dependent variable in this experiment? A: Mortality (%) (results and on the y-axis)

  26. Biology Midterm Study Guide 28. What is the effect of salt concentration on mortality of the Daphnia? A: As the salt concentration increases from 2.5g/l and decreases from 2.5 g/l, the mortality of Daphnia increases.

  27. Biology Midterm Study Guide 29. Describe procedure A and explain why it would cause the change shown. A: Hypertonic solution  water is moving out of the cell from high to low concentration, causing the cell to shrink (when placed in salt water)

  28. Biology Midterm Study Guide 30. Explain why procedure B has the opposite effect of procedure A A: Hypotonic solution  Water is moving into the cell from high to low concentration, causing the cell to swell ( cell is placed in distilled water)

  29. Biology Midterm Study Guide 31. State one way the contents of the control tank would differ from the contents of the three experimental tanks. A: The control tank will have no concentration of fertex in the water

  30. Biology Midterm Study Guide 32. Identify two factors that must be kept the same in all four tanks. A: # of sea urchin eggs, Species of sea urchin

  31. Biology Midterm Study Guide 33. State one way to improve the validity of the experimental results A: 1. have a larger sample size 2. do over a longer period of time

  32. Biology Midterm Study Guide 34. Identify the independent variable in the experiment. A: Concentration of fertex

  33. Biology Midterm Study Guide 35. State one example of the type of data that should be collected during the experiment. A: # of sea urchin eggs that are externally fertilized

  34. Biology Midterm Study Guide 36. The best explanation for the changes observed by the student is that, when switching from low to high power, the…. A: diameter of the field of view decreases

  35. Biology Midterm Study Guide 37. The diagrams below show four different one-celled organisms (shaded) in the field of view of the same microscope using different magnifications. Which illustration shows the largest one-celled organisms? A: 1

  36. Biology Midterm Study Guide 38. Explain why you chose the illustrations. A: The organism takes up the most space under the lowest power (least zoomed in)

  37. Biology Midterm Study Guide 39. What is the optimum temperature and pH for the enzyme below? Why? A: Temperature = 37°C and pH of 7. The optimum amount is at the peak of the graph.