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Bell Ringer

Bell Ringer

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Bell Ringer

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  1. Bell Ringer • What event is this cartoon portraying? • Why is it funny?

  2. The Nation’s BeginningsPrehistory-1824 Chapter 1

  3. Many Cultures Meet • Scientists believe that the first people to inhabit America moved here between 15-40,000 years ago • Why is there such a large range on this number? • They migrated throughout North and South America covering each region • By 1492 the Natives spoke nearly 400 different languages and had roughly 500 tribes

  4. Many Cultures Meet • Native tribes (or clans) had several similarities • Common ancestors • Identified with animal spirits (bears, wolves, etc.) • Some clans banned together to from roaming groups • Common religious beliefs • Some became stationary and created villages • Advances in agriculture made food (esp. maize, squash, and beans) more plentiful • This allowed for towns to grow and become powerful • Exception to farming was in the Pacific Northwest where fishing was plentiful

  5. The Europeans • The Renaissance created an environment that fostered growth in economics, art, and political thought • Voyages exploring the Atlantic Ocean led to the introduction of the Americas to the Europeans as well as increased trade with Africa • Portuguese explorers took to the seas first • Sailing in the Atlantic they traveled down around Africa and over to India • This opened the door to not just gold and salt, but slaves too

  6. The West Africans • Slave trade expanded quickly • 11 million Africans were forcefully relocated over 3 centuries • The journey was called the Middle Passage • What do you think happened to Africa in response to the slave trade? • What kind of conditions did the slaves travel in?

  7. First Encounters in America • Christopher Columbus sailed out to find a western route to Asia • He had no idea how large the world was nor that two continents were between him and Asia to the west • What he discovered was the Caribbean and Central America • He thought he found Japan, China, and India (thus we call the Natives “Indians”) • Columbus NEVER set foot on United States soil • He traveled west three more times and died thinking this was Asia

  8. Spain in the New World • Spain rapidly settled in the New World claiming both continents except Brazil (left for Portugal) • The Spaniards treated the Natives harshly forcing them to convert to Catholicism, prohibiting tribal rituals, and enslaving them • The worst part of Spanish influence on the Natives came from the introduction of diseases such as small pox which killed off a huge portion of the Natives • The best part of European influence was it opened up each group to new products through the Columbian Exchange • Natives now had new animals such as horses • Europeans gained new crops such as maize and potatoes

  9. Europe in the New World • Seeing the profits Spain made from the Americas, France and Britain began to explore as well • Britain had a failed attempt in Roanoke but came back strong with the settlement at Jamestown • There, they developed a colonial government with a legislature called the House of Burgesses • The Puritans/Separatists settled in Plymouth (and then out to Boston/Salem) under the Mayflower Compact (a form of self-government) • New England would quickly turn into 4 colonies (RI, MA, CT, and NH) • Finally, Britain settled the Middle and Southern colonies of GA, NC, and SC • This area predominantly became known for slave trade

  10. Europe in the New World • France settled Quebec a year after Jamestown was settled, putting these two European powers as neighbors in the New World as well • Soon, competition over fur trapping lands and markets as well as the conflict in Europe between Britain and France led them into war here and there • The French and Indian War (Seven Years’ War) set the stage for the American Revolution • Colonists were promised they would not have to pay taxes if they would simply help the Crown fight against the French and Indians

  11. Democratic Ideals in the Colonies • The people of the colonies firmly believed they were English citizens and thus deserved the same rights as those who lived in England • The Magna Carta had guaranteed right to own property and have trial by jury • The English Bill of Rights required the Parliament to meet regularly and stated the monarchy could not raise taxes or build an army with Parliaments consent

  12. What is happening here?

  13. Enlightenment and Great Awakening • The Enlightenment was an intellectual movement in Europe that believed all problems could be solved by human reasoning • Church attendance declined as people sought less emotional paths for religion • In response to decreased attendance Jonathan Edwards and George Whitefield held revivals in the colonies promoting the Holy Spirit • These speeches were very much so “fire and brimstone”

  14. Causes of the American Revolution • The French and Indian War set the stage for conflict between the colonists and the Crown • The colonists viewed themselves as British citizens, but were not treated as such • Colonists pushed for representation in Parliament, but the King/Parliament said they were “virtually” represented • Compounded by the taxes being forced upon them as a repayment for their “protection” during the war the colonists began boycotting and protesting • NOTE: They did not want to separate at this point

  15. Going to War • The colonists began to assemble calling for the First Continental Congress in September of 1775 • There they made the decision to reconvene in May 1776 if issues were not better • Before they could met again war broke out in Concord, MA (Apr. 1776) • Thomas Jefferson penned the Declaration of Independence in which he called for a break from Britain and detailed the grievances against the King • The heart of the matter was accurately captured in his statement: • “That all men are created equal; that they are endowed by their Creator with certain unalienable rights’ that among these are life, liberty, and the pursuit of happiness…”

  16. The War • A young colonel from the French and Indian war named George Washington was chosen to lead the Patriots against the British forces • A very motivational leader, Washington managed to convince the Patriots to hang with him and push through to victory despite being outnumbered in every element • His persistence, and the help of the French army led to British surrender in Yorktown • The British ceded all lands to the Appalachian mountains (excluding Spanish claimed FL and British claimed Canada)

  17. Assignment • How did the French and Indian War impact relations between the British and the colonists? • Using lecture, your textbook, and other sources you may find write an essay answer this question • Make sure to look at both political and economic concerns that the colonists had • Due Friday

  18. Too Late to Apologize: A Declaration • • Why was it too late for the King to apologize? • If you were King, would you have done the same thing or would you have tried to broker a deal with them?

  19. The Constitution • The colonists declared independence in 1776 • They won independence in 1781 • Creating a government was their next step • Most states already had state constitutions • The Articles of Confederation was built to support the power of the states—the federal government was weak • It could not tax or regulate trade/disputes between states • To amend the articles there had to be a unanimous vote

  20. The Constitution • A few years after the Articles were put into place a depression caused wages for farmers to decrease—farmers lost farms due to foreclosure • Court ordered farm seizures caused farmers to take up arms • Daniel Shays shut down the courts but eventually he and his supporters were arrested • Shays’ Rebellion showed government leaders that the Articles were too weak to fix issues such as this

  21. The Constitution • In 1787 leaders came together at the Constitutional Convention to revise the Articles • They quickly tossed them out and began from scratch • Two plans emerged

  22. The Constitution • The Founders argued over the plans and slavery until compromises were proposed • Connecticut Compromise called for: • Bicameral legislature (House of Reps. And Senate) • House based on population; Senate gave each state equal representation • Three-Fifths Compromise • In calculated population a slave would count as 3/5thof a person

  23. The Constitution • In order for the Constitution to become our governing law it had to be ratified • 9 out of 13 states had to agree • They got 9 out of 13 easily, but VA and NY were not on board • Two groups emerged from the debate—Federalists and Anti-Federalists • Federalists: the Articles are terrible, we must pass the Constitution • Anti-Federalists: The Constitution creates too powerful a government, we cannot pass it

  24. The Constitution • Three of the founders (Alexander Hamilton, John Jay, and James Madison) wrote The Federalist Papers to convince NY to agree to the Constitution • It worked, at least in NYC which forced the rest of the state to get on board • The Anti-Federalists came on board with the contingency that a Bill of Rights be added to the Constitution spelling out the rights of the people • The Constitution became our governing document on September 17, 1791

  25. The Constitution • There are 7 guiding principles in the Constitution: • Popular Sovereignty: The people give the government power to rule and also choose what is best for their state • Limited Government: Gov’t. can only exercise powers granted to it by the Constitution • Federalism: There are shared powers between the state and federal governments • Separation of Powers: No one branch controls all the power • Checks and Balances: Each branch can limit powers of other branches • Representative Government: We choose people to speak on our behalf regarding law creation, etc. • Individual Rights: The Constitution protects individual rights such as property, speech, and fair trial

  26. The New Republic • George Washington became the first president in 1789 (in NYC—Washington, D.C. doesn’t exist yet) • Washington chose a diverse Cabinet • Thomas Jefferson, Sec. of State • Alexander Hamilton, Sec. of Treasury • Hamilton’s Financial Plan • He called for the federal government to take over all state debts from the war, pay debts by issuing bonds and raising taxes, and creating a Bank of the United States • Many people hated this plan • Washington, however, supported it and thus it was approved

  27. The New Republic • When Washington stepped down he issued his Farewell Address • He called for no political parties and no foreign entanglements • The election of 1796 John Adams was the Federalist candidate while Thomas Jefferson was the Anti-Federalist candidate (parties?!?) • We also become promptly entangled with Britain and France (oops…)

  28. The New Republic • Washington had called for neutrality as France enter the French Revolution and has Britain and France warred with each other • John Jay was sent to negotiate with the British—he created Jay’s Treaty which got rid of British forts on our land but they maintained that they had right bully our ships, etc. • Democrats hated the treaty • Pinckney’s Treaty was also negotiated in which Spain gave us right to trade through New Orleans

  29. The New Republic • As America entered naval battles with France, new president John Adams pushed for the Alien and Sedition Acts • Alien: President could have any immigrant deported if they bad mouthed the government • Sedition: Illegal for citizens to publically discredit the federal government • Are these laws constitutional? Do you think they could come back again?

  30. The New Republic • John Adams was defeated in the 1800 election • In his last hours he created new judgeships so he could appoint new judges with his ideology • Jefferson took office the next day, he ordered that the job invitations not be given to these illegitimate judges—James Madison (Sec. of State) didn’t deliver them • Marbury v. Madison ordered that no job existed and therefore Marbury’s “job offer” was not honored • The case also established judicial review saying the Supreme Court has right to decide constitutionality of a federal law

  31. The New Republic • Jefferson more than doubled the size of the country when Napoleon offered to sell the LA territory for $15M • The British were still being obnoxious by stealing our ships and impressing our sailors • Jefferson issued the Embargo of 1807

  32. The New Republic • The embargo didn’t work—it hurt Americans more than the British • Shortly before the end of Jefferson’s presidency he removes the embargo • James Madison is the next president and he decides we must go to war with Britain • The War of 1812 is fought on American and Canadian soil • The British burn the capitol and the White House • What did Dolly Madison save from the W.H.? • What song was written by a prisoner while he watched Baltimore/D.C. burn?

  33. The New Republic • After the War of 1812 the British were forced to recognize the U.S. as a free nation • The U.S. had begun to divide into two groups—northerners (industrialized) and southerners (farmers) • Northerners had factories, banks, etc. • Southerners had cotton & tobacco farms and slavery • There differences would set the stage for the Civil War to include their issues over tariffs

  34. The New Republic • To prevent Spain from trying to regain its colonies James Monroe (and Sec. of State John Q. Adams) pushed through the Monroe Doctrine • Declared the Europe had no right to meddle in American republics • We promised not to meddle in European affairs • The Monroe Doctrine (with help from the British) made sure that Europe did not try to colonize anything else in the New World

  35. Homework • Do the “Prepare for the EOC” questions #1-4 on p. 31 • Due Wednesday