load restraints n.
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  3. The security of your load,your life and the life of othersrelies on properload restraint LOAD RESTRAINTS

  4. Overview • Briefly describe the product or service, the user problems it solves, and the audience for which it is intended. • Outline different models available. LOAD RESTRAINTS

  5. Features & Benefits • Incident • On 22 January 2003 three children were killed in a motor vehicle accident when the vehicle they were travelling in ran over steel plates which had earlier fallen from a pallet on a road train. LOAD RESTRAINTS

  6. Correct load restraint measures are critical to ensure the security of the load. • If the load falls off it endangers the lives of other road users • If the load moves forward it has the potential to kill the driver LOAD RESTRAINTS

  7. Gates can be ineffective unless they are supported by lashings to the • opposite side of the vehicle or the load is unitized with the gates LOAD RESTRAINTS

  8. Penalties exist for breaches of the Act. Penalty: • In the case of a body corporate - $125,000 • In the case of a natural person - $25,000 LOAD RESTRAINTS

  9. Why is load restraint important? • Every year Australians are injured and killed in crashes • caused by unrestrained loads. This occurs when: • • Heavy objects fall from vehicles on to other vehicles or • pedestrians. • • Drivers swerve to avoid falling or fallen items from • vehicles. • • Spillage on roads from lost loads causes vehicles to skid • and lose control. • • Unrestrained loads crash into vehicle cabins during • emergency braking. • • Vehicles overturn because of loads shifting while • cornering. LOAD RESTRAINTS

  10. Applications • Discuss how the product or service can be used by different groups, giving real user examples where possible. LOAD RESTRAINTS

  11. Specifications • For products, give relevant technical specifications, using as many slides as necessary. • For services, detail the terms and conditions under which the service is offered. LOAD RESTRAINTS

  12. Why loads fall from vehicles: • Everyday driving manoeuvres can involve heavy braking • or cornering forces. Without sufficient restraint to • counteract these forces, loads can fall from vehicles or • shift causing loss of steering control. LOAD RESTRAINTS

  13. Load placement and restraintrequirements? • The National Road Transport Reform (Mass and Loading) • Regulations 1995 require that: • • A load on a vehicle must not be placed in a way that • makes the vehicle unstable or unsafe. • • A load on a vehicle must be secured so that it is • unlikely to fall or be dislodged from the vehicle. • • An appropriate method must be used to restrain the • load on a vehicle. • Comparable requirements apply in all States and • Territories and you are advised to check the relevant • legislation. LOAD RESTRAINTS

  14. Load Restraint Forces LOAD RESTRAINTS

  15. Tie-down Method • Tie-down restraint is the most common form of load restraint and involves the use of • lashings. • The load is prevented from moving by friction between the load and the vehicle. • The friction force prevents the load moving forward, rearward and sideways. The • lashings are tensioned to clamp the load to the vehicle and to prevent the load from • moving upwards. • The friction force comes from both the weight of the load and the clamping force of the • lashings. When the surfaces are slippery, the friction forces can be very low. • Lashings that clamp the load onto the vehicle are called ‘tie-down lashings’ • Friction cannot be taken into account unless the tensioned lashings provide adequate • clamping of the load on the deck. Unrestrained loads, even on high friction surfaces, • can bounce when travelling over uneven road surfaces and then shift during changes • in speed, direction or slope. LOAD RESTRAINTS


  17. A tarpaulin used to restrain this load of concrete blocks. LOAD RESTRAINTS


  19. This load of logs was not properly restrained and fell off on a corner. In this case nopedestrians or other road users were injured. LOAD RESTRAINTS

  20. Poor load restraint caused the heavy steel sections to move and cause the rollover. LOAD RESTRAINTS

  21. The base of the load broke from the strapping tie-down force. The strap should havebeen positioned above the dunnage supporting the load. LOAD RESTRAINTS

  22. The shipping container bent this trailer. It is important to know the weight of the loadand its centre of mass and then to position it correctly on the appropriate vehicle. LOAD RESTRAINTS


  24. Side Curtains • Side curtains on vehicles are generally used to protect the load from rain and dust and • are usually quicker, easier and safer than a tarpaulin to put in place and secure. • Tarpaulins • The main function of a tarpaulin is for weather protection. • Tie Rails • Many tie rails are not strong enough for use with chain and webbing without bending. • The forces obtained with this equipment can exceed the strength of the rails particularly • when using direct restraint lashings. • Lashings • Synthetic ropes, webbing, and high-tensile steel chains are the most commonly used • lashings. Steel strapping and wire rope have some limited applications. Ropes have • low strength and cannot be tensioned sufficiently to restrain heavy loads. • Ropes • Rope designed for use in transport (Transport Fibre Rope) is made from synthetic • fibre. Rope made from natural fibre has lower strength than synthetic rope. • Ropes should only be used for restraining relatively lightweight loads. • Webbing • Webbing assemblies comprise webbing, end fittings and tensioners. Tensioners can • be either attached to the vehicle (truck winch) or ‘in-line’ (hand ratchet). • Chain • Chains are usually fitted with hooks on each end and tensioned with ‘over-centre’ lever • tensioners, commonly called ‘dogs and chains’. The chain commonly used is 8 mm • high tensile ‘transport’ chain with a typical lashing capacity of 3800 to 4000 kg. Other • sizes are 6, 7.3, 10, 13 and 16 mm. All transport chain is marked at least every 500 • mm with its lashing capacity (LC). • Strapping • Strapping can be steel or plastic material and is used for unitising loads into packs or • bundles. Strapping can be highly pre-tensioned using manual or powered tensioners, • making it very suitable as a tie-down lashing for heavy objects especially on container • flats and pallets. • Stretch and Shrink Wrapping • Stretch film wrapping and shrink wrapping can be used to unitise a load consisting of • many small objects such as palletised loads. They are often not suitable for heavier • loads or loads with sharp corners that can penetrate the wrapping. The use of handling • equipment can damage the wrapping and reduce its effectiveness. • Wire Rope • Wire rope is used to tie down loads that are placed cross-wise on the deck. The rope • is tensioned with a winch or turnbuckle. • Elastic Straps • Elastic straps (octopus straps) are low strength lashings fitted with end hooks, commonly • used for restraining lightweight equipment. LOAD RESTRAINTS


  26. A webbing net can be used for difficult loads. LOAD RESTRAINTS


  28. A curtainside trailer after an accident. LOAD RESTRAINTS


  30. This shows some aluminium ingot packs that have tipped forwards under heavybraking. Note that the webbing tie-down straps have stretched and allowed the loadto tip over. The unbraced front load rack was too weak to support the front pack. LOAD RESTRAINTS

  31. The side curtain could not restrain these pallets of cooking oil. LOAD RESTRAINTS

  32. A metal pipe fitting dislodged from a vehicle and hit the bonnet and roof of this car. LOAD RESTRAINTS

  33. Bulk bags must be restrained. Tie-down is seldom effective because the contents cansettle during a journey and allow the lashings to loosen. Containing the bags on thevehicle with properly designed sides or gates is a better option. LOAD RESTRAINTS

  34. This inadequately restrained 12 tonne stainless steel coil rolled forward onto thechassis, over the top of the unbraced loading rack. The extra weight caused a fronttyre to burst LOAD RESTRAINTS



  37. 12 steel billets weighing 24 tonnes in all, pierced the cab of this truck. Note that thepipe loading rack (far right) was ineffective. LOAD RESTRAINTS

  38. View from passenger's side. LOAD RESTRAINTS


  40. These 3 tonne pipes dislodged when the trailer mounted a gutter at a roundabout. LOAD RESTRAINTS





  45. The steel straps on this 15 tonne steel coil broke allowing the centre of the coil to spearoutwards, causing the trailer to roll over. LOAD RESTRAINTS


  47. 1 The red items are lugs and fittings for direct restraint. They are bolted or welded to theload and the carrying vehicle. Some are designed to weld on a flat surface and others ona 90 degree edge or corner.2 The pink items are chain gauges. They are used to determine if a chain is stretched orworn. They measure the link length, diameter and internal width. They are normally brandspecific. Check with the manufacturer of the chain you use.3 The black items are rubber snubbing blocks. They act as shock absorbers for chainsto stop them breaking under impact loads. They usually consist of a circle of six chainlinks set in rubber. Half a link protrudes from each end to connect the rest of the chain. LOAD RESTRAINTS

  48. This photo is a view of the back of the driver’s cabin of a prime mover. It was damagedby a tractor that was being carried on a low loader. When the prime mover braked, thetractor rolled forward, up and over the ‘goose neck’ onto the cabin. LOAD RESTRAINTS