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Comma

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Comma

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  1. Comma Chapter 8

  2. Chapter Outline  Comma Uses: • Between Items in a Series • After Introductory Material • Around Words That Interrupt the Flow of a sentence • Between Complete Thoughts Connected by a Joining Word • With Direct Quotations

  3. 1- Use a comma between items in a series: *Commas are used to separate three or more items in a series. Examples: -He hit the ball, dropped the bat, and ran to first base. -Saturday morning started with a hearty breakfast of scrambled eggs,sausage, and French toast. *Do not use a comma when the series contains only two items. e.g.: The mechanic started the engine andfiddled with the fan belt.

  4. Practice 1 (Page: 92) • In the following sentences, insert commas between items in a series. 1. Most communities now recycle newspapers aluminum and plastic. 2. Walking bicycling and swimming are all good aerobic exercises. 3. We collected the kids loaded the van and set off for the amusement park. 4. Signs of burnout include insomnia inability to concentrate and depression.

  5. Practice 1 (Page: 92) • In the following sentences, insert commas between items in a series. 1. Most communities now recycle newspapers,aluminum,and plastic. 2. Walking, bicycling,and swimming are all good aerobic exercises. 3. We collected the kids, loaded the van,and set off for the amusement park. 4. Signs of burnout include insomnia,inability to concentrate, and depression.

  6. 2- Use a comma after introductory material: • Use a comma after an introductory word, an introductory phrase, or an introductory clause. • An example of an introductory word: • Unfortunately, many boys who were sixteen years old and younger fought as soldiers in the Civil War. • An introductory phrase: • After the war, an army statistician managed to do a study of the ages of the soldiers. • An introductory clause: • When the war actually broke out, Americans did not seem to realize that the dispute would be devastating.

  7. Example… Although I was tired, I finished the paper by the 6:00 A.M. deadline. COMMA AFTER INTRODUCTION But: I finished the paper by the 6:00 A.M. Although I was tired . NO COMMA BECAUSE NO INTRODUCTION NOTE:If a dependent clause comes at the end of the sentence, there isNO NEEDfor a comma.

  8. Practice 2 (Page: 92) • Insert a comma after the introductory material in each of the following sentences. • 1. During the first-aid course one student accidentally broke her finger. • 2. When the power went back on all the digital clocks in the house began to blink. • 3. Pausing in the doorway the actress smiled warmly at the photographers. • 4. After waiting in line for two hours the students were told that the registrar’s office was closing for lunch.

  9. Practice 2 (Page: 92) • Insert a comma after the introductory material in each of the following sentences. • 1. During the first-aid course ,one student accidentally broke her finger. • 2. When the power went back on ,all the digital clocks in the house began to blink. • 3. Pausing in the doorway ,the actress smiled warmly at the photographers. • 4. After waiting in line for two hours ,the students were told that the registrar’s office was closing for lunch.

  10. 3- Use commas around words interrupting the flow of thought. • Sentences sometimes contain material that interrupts the flow of thought. Such words and word groups should be set off from the rest of the sentence by commas. • For example, • My brother, who is very neat, complains that I am too messy. • The owner of the blue Ford, grumbling angrily, came out to move his car. • Our house, which was built in 1975, needs a new roof and extra insulation. • The house’s storm windows, though, are in fairly good shape.

  11. Practice 3 (Page: 93) • Insert a comma after the introductory material in each of the following sentences. 1. The Beatles who originally called themselves the Quarrymen released twenty-nine single records in their first year. 2. Frozen yogurt which is relatively low in calories is as delicious to many people as ice cream. 3. Some dieters on the other hand would rather give up desserts completely. 4. The new office building forty stories high provides a fi ne view of the parkway.

  12. Practice 3 (Page: 93) • Insert a comma after the introductory material in each of the following sentences. 1. The Beatles,who originally called themselves ,the Quarrymen released twenty-nine single records in their first year. 2. Frozen yogurt ,which is relatively low in calories ,is as delicious to many people as ice cream. 3. Some dieters ,on the other hand ,would rather give up desserts completely. 4. The new office ,building forty stories high ,provides a fine view of the parkway.

  13. 4- Between complete thoughts connected by a joining word. • When two complete thoughts are combined into one sentence by a joining word like and, but, or so, a comma is used before the joining word. • They were five strangers stuck in an elevator, so they told each other jokes to ease the tension. • Money may not buy happiness, but it makes misery a lot more comfortable. • Ved has a restaurant job this summer, and his sister has an office position.

  14. Punctuation note Don’t add a comma just because a sentence contains the word and, but, or so. Use a comma only when the joining word comes between two complete thoughts. Each of those thoughts must have its own subject and verb. • Comma: Lois spent two hours in the gym, and then she went to class. (Each complete thought has a subject and a verb: Lois spent and she went.) • No comma: Lois spent two hours in the gym and then went to class. (The second thought isn’t complete because it doesn’t have its own subject.)

  15. 4- Use a Comma with Direct Quotations • A comma is used to separate directly quoted material from the rest of the sentence. • Someone shouted, “Look out below!” • The customer grumbled to the waiter, “This coffee tastes like mud.” • Steve replied, ‘No problem.’