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Chapter 10 Discussion Questions and Terms. Nullification. The assertion that states had the right to declare a federal law unconstitutional. Came about as a result of the Protective Tariff during the 1820’s. Maysville Road Veto.
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Nullification • The assertion that states had the right to declare a federal law unconstitutional. Came about as a result of the Protective Tariff during the 1820’s.
Maysville Road Veto • Andrew Jackson vetoed the bill because the “road” project was entirely inside of Kentucky and he felt it was not the Federal Governments job to help with intrastate affairs.
Virginia and Kentucky Resolutions • Written in 1798 & 1799 by Thomas Jefferson and James Madison in response to the Alien and Sedition Acts stated that states should have the right to declare a federal law unconstitutional.
South Carolina Exposition and Protest • 1828 (written anonymously by John C. Calhoun) stated that tariff of 1828 was unconstitutional and that states had the right to nullify unconstitutional laws.
The Olive Branch and the Sword • Two part law issued by Andrew Jackson • Olive Branch=lowered duties from the tariff • Sword=Force Bill-Authorized the President to use force (military) to collect customs duties from the tariff
Panic of 1837 • Economic downturn caused by Andrew Jackson’s “killing” of the National Bank, formation of Pet Banks, overspeculation, and the specie circular.
Charles G. Finney • Father of Modern Revivalism
Horace Mann • 1st secretary of education in Massachusetts who instituted many school reforms in the 1830’s.
William Lloyd Garrison • Strong willed leader of the Abolitionist Movement and creator of The Liberator (abolitionist newspaper)
Seneca Falls Convention • 1848 Convention in NY that created the Seneca Falls Declaration for Women’s Rights • Elizabeth Cady Stanton • Lucretia Mott
Discussion Question 1 • Adoption of poll taxes but getting rid of property requirements (most new states had no property requirements for voting rights) • Written Ballots (less intimidation at the polls) • More elected offices vs. appointed positions • Voting for Presidential Electors for the Electoral College • Voters being courted by Candidates
Discussion Question #2 • 1 political party (Republican) • 5 Candidates • NE=John Q. Adams • SC=John C. Calhoun • GA=William Crawford • Kentucky=Henry Clay • Tennessee=Andrew Jackson • “Corrupt Bargain”=Clay throwing support to JQ Adams, Clay became Secretary of State
Discussion Question #3 • After the election of 1824 Martin Van Buren and Andrew Jackson formed the Democratic party which once again created a 2 Party System
Discussion Question #4 • Mudslinging=Republicans called Jackson “drunken gambler, adulterer, murderer”; Democrats called Adams “Wearing silk underwear, rich, privileged”
Discussion Question #5 • “Rotation of Office”=Spoils System; fired nearly ½ of government jobholders and replaced with “his people” • Tariff of Abominations (1828) passed by John Q. Adams but supported by a lot of Jacksonian Democrats in Congress • Liked by Western states (agriculture) and Northern states (trade); disliked strongly by South • Jackson felt because of his Indian policies that his southern support could handle his support of the Tariff
Discussion Question #6 • Originally the National Bank originally brought forth the idea of Nullification (VA and KT Resolutions) • Tariff would continue the idea of Nullification • John C. Calhoun authored the South Carolina Exposition and Protest • Tariff was also related to rights of slavery (could federal government pass laws that only benefitted one section of the country) • Read pg. 292-293
Discussion Question #7 • Jackson=Common Man??? • Disliked National Bank- “Only benefitted a few monied capitalist” • Established State Banks “Pet Banks” and withdrew federal money and put into Pet Banks
Discussion Question #8 • A lot of the ideals of the National Republican party but gained more support in the South • Many southerners pushed away from Democratic party over Jackson’s support of the 1828 tariff and Jackson’s lack of federal funding for internal improvement • Reform movements (temperance, public school, Protestant Nativist) all went the way of the Whigs • Most Immigrants were pushed into the Democratic Party by the prejudice of the Whig party
Discussion Question #9 • “Pet Banks” receiving government funding from the National Bank led to a boom in speculation • Lots of bad loans • Specie Circular
Discussion Question #10 • Democrats=Martin Van Buren v. Whigs=William Henry Harrison • William Henry Harrison won the election (upset)
Discussion Question #11 • 2nd Great Awakening=Revivalism • Religion making its way to the Frontier (new denominations emerged) • Methodist=largest new frontier religion (religion was a matter of the heart, not the head) • Promoted a sense of morality on the frontier • Charles G. Finney=Father of Modern Revivalism
Discussion Question #12 • Reform movements of the early-mid 19th century • 1) Temperance • 2) Public-School • 3) Abolition • 4) Women’s Rights • 5) Penitentiary and Asylum (criminal and insane) • 6) Utopian Societies