Proclamation of 1763 • In 1763, Parliament issued the Proclamation of 1763, which ordered colonists not to settle west of the Appalachian Mountains. • The British government believed this would keep peace with the Native Americans. • The colonists thought the British government should not interfere.
The Stamp Act • In 1765, Parliament passed the Stamp Act. • It forced colonists to pay a tax on almost everything printed on paper—newspapers, legal documents—even playing cards. • The colonists reacted so strongly against the tax that Parliament revoked it a year later.
The Townshend Acts • In 1767, Parliament passed the Townshend Acts, which taxed lead, glass, paper, paint, and tea imported to the colonies. • Colonists resisted by refusing to buy these items. • The tax was lifted on everything except tea.
Boston MassacreMarch 5, 1770 • In 1768, 4,000 British soldiers moved into Boston, Massachusetts. • Colonists were forced to keep them in their homes, so Boston became an occupied city. • This occupation triggered the Boston Massacre. • On March 5, 1770, a number of colonists got in an argument with the redcoats and began throwing snowballs and chunks of ice at them. • Soldiers fired shots into the crowd and 5 Americans were killed. Crispus Attucks was the first African-American to die for his country. • The soldiers were brought into court and John Adams defended the soldiers. Two were found guilty and the others were declared innocent.
Boston Tea Party • In 1773, British East India company ships full of tea were docked in Boston Harbor. • On December 16, colonists dressed as Mohawks boarded the ship and dumped the tea in the water. • The event became known as the Boston Tea Party.
The Intolerable Acts • To punish the colonists for dumping the tea, the British passed even stricter laws. • The colonists called these laws the Intolerable Acts because the colonists decided they would not tolerate (accept) them. • The First Continental Congress met to protest the Intolerable Acts. • Every colony except Georgia sent delegates, or representatives. • In Sept. 1774, the congress demanded that the Intolerable Acts be taken back and that the colonist be given more power in making decisions.
War Begins • The war began when fighting broke out in Lexington and Concord, Massachusetts. • Minutemen were members of groups of armed men who were ready at a minute’s notice to take to the field against the British. • The British were called “redcoats” due to the bright red color of their uniforms. • There were 25,300 casualties of Americans. • There were 10,000 casualties of British soldiers.
Soldiers Minutemen Redcoats
The Second Continental Congress • The Second Continental Congress met in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania in May 1775, a month after the American Revolution had begun. • The colonists realized that they must fight together against the British if they were to defeat the British. • George Washington was nominated to be the Commander in Chief of the Continental Army—everyone voted for him.
Results of the American Revolution • The thirteen colonies became an independent nation called the United States of America, which was recognized by Britain. • Britain gave the United States the land east of the Mississippi river, north to Canada, and south to the border of Florida. • All British control of American trade was lifted. • A new government with elected representatives was formed under the Articles of Confederation. • The successful revolution encouraged other people, especially the French, to overthrow their governments.
People of the Revolutionary WarAmericans George Washington Benjamin Franklin Patrick Henry John Adams Samuel Adams Ethan Allen Nathan Hale Paul Revere Thomas Paine Thomas Jefferson
People in the Revolutionary WarBritish King George III Benedict Arnold Gen. Cornwallis