The “BIG IDEAS” • World War I has 4 main causes: the building up of the military, alliances, imperialism and nationalism. • World War I was a total war: Governments used many resources such as propaganda to increase nationalism and participation in the military to win. • During war, people’s individual rights and liberties are often limited. • World War I marked the beginning of an interdependent world.
Factors Involved • M = Militarism • A = Alliances • I = Imperialism • N = Nationalism
Tensions among the great powers build up (end of 1800s – early 1900’s)
Origins of the Alliance System • Otto von Bismark • Following Franco-Prussian War he set out to protect his newly unified nation of Germany by reaching friendly agreements with Austria-Hungary, Italy and even Russia • Bismark wanted to isolate France and ensure that Germany would never have to fight a “two-front war” • This plan was ineffective because of differences between Austria-Hungary and Russia over the Balkans
Origins of the Alliance System • The rest of Europe must respond to Germany • Triple Alliance • Germany • Austria-Hungary • Italy • Triple Entente • Britain • France • Russia • Stage is set for all out warfare on the continent of Europe
1. The Alliance System Triple Entente: Triple Alliance:
The Major Players: 1914-17 Allied Powers: Central Powers: Nicholas II [Rus] Wilhelm II [Ger] George V [Br] Victor Emmanuel II [It] Enver Pasha[Turkey] Pres. Poincare [Fr] Franz Josef [A-H]
Problems facing Europe in the early 1900’s • The Balkan Crisis (“The Powder Keg”) • A weak Ottoman Empire was no longer able to contain the Balkan territories desire for “self-determination” • Serbia was independent and sought to unite the entire region and align with Russia • Austria-Hungary annexed Bosnia and Herzegovina in 1908 in order to prevent Russia from gaining territory and strategic ports. • Various conflicts occurred, usually with one nation being humiliated, until nations had strengthened themselves to the point that they could stand firm.
Problems facing Europe in the early 1900’s • Competition for colonies and threats of violence
Immediate Cause of WWI Assassination of Archduke Ferdinand in the Balkans by a Slavic nationalist
The Assassin: GavriloPrincip
Plot to break-up Austria-Hungarian empire • Serbian nationalists(Gavrilo Princip “The Black Hand) plotted to break-up the Austria-Hungarian empire • Archduke Ferdinand and his wife were shot and killed • Chain reaction leads to the start of WWI
Pan-Slavism: The Balkans, 1914 The“Powder Keg”of Europe
Austria-Hungary blamed Serbia for the murders of the archduke and his wife and placed an ultimatum on Serbia. Serbia refused to comply with the ultimatum Austria-Hungary declared war on Serbia (7/28/1914) Russia, a Slavic nation and friend of Serbia, mobilizes it’s forces in preparation for war. Germany, an ally of Austria-Hungary, declared war on Russia Germany also declared war on France, an ally of Russia Germany invaded Belgium (8/3/1914) so that German forces could enter France more easily. Britain declared war on Germany
European Battleground • Triple Alliance becomes the Central Powers: • Germany, Austria-Hungary, Ottoman Empire • Triple Entente becomes the Allied Powers: • Britain, France, Russia (later joined by Italy and the U.S.) • Who was to blame? (see graphic organizer) • U.S. remains neutral under the leadership of President Woodrow Wilson • Thriving nation, across the pond
European Battleground • Three Front War • Western Front – extended across Belgium and northeastern France to Switzerland • Eastern Front – extended from the Baltic Sea to Black Sea • Southern Front – ran between Italy and Austria-Hungary
Recruits of the Central Powers A German Soldier Says Farewell to His Mother Austro-Hungarians
European Battleground • Trench Warfare • Armies reached a stalemate and “dug-in”. This resulted in tremendous loss of life and very little movement • “No-man’s land” = region between the enemy trenches • New weapons • Poison gas / gas mask • Airplane • Subs • Tanks • Automatic Machine Gun
Trench Warfare “No Man’s Land”
Mobilization • Home by Christmas! • No major war in 50 years! • Nationalism! It's a long way to Tipperary, It's a long way to go; It's a long way to Tipperary, To the sweetest girl I know! Goodbye, Piccadilly, Farewell, Leicester Square, It's a long, long way to Tipperary, But my heart's right there!
U.S. Involvement • April 1917, President Wilson asks Congress to declare war on Germany based on… • Unrestricted submarine warfare – Germany was sinking any vessels they encountered in the Atlantic Ocean, even if they had American passengers on board. • Lusitania – British passenger ship was sunk in 1915 killing 1,200 people including 128 Americans.
U.S. Involvement • Zimmerman Note • Britain intercepted a message from German foreign secretary (Arthur Zimmerman) to Mexico. Message indicated Germany would support Mexico if they were to wage war against the U.S. to reclaim land in American southwest
U.S. Involvement • American entrance turned the tide of the war • Russia had withdrawn from the war in 1917 due to civil unrest in their own country no more 2-front war (ADD: Treaty of Brest-Litovsk) • Germany was now able to concentrate troops on the western front • American reinforcements allowed allies to hold off the last German push, which came within 40 miles of Paris