world war i n.
Skip this Video
Loading SlideShow in 5 Seconds..
WORLD WAR I PowerPoint Presentation
Download Presentation


210 Vues Download Presentation
Télécharger la présentation


- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - E N D - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
Presentation Transcript


  2. The “BIG IDEAS” • World War I has 4 main causes: the building up of the military, alliances, imperialism and nationalism. • World War I was a total war: Governments used many resources such as propaganda to increase nationalism and participation in the military to win. • During war, people’s individual rights and liberties are often limited. • World War I marked the beginning of an interdependent world.

  3. Factors Involved • M = Militarism • A = Alliances • I = Imperialism • N = Nationalism

  4. Aggressive Nationalism

  5. Tensions among the great powers build up (end of 1800s – early 1900’s)

  6. Origins of the Alliance System • Otto von Bismark • Following Franco-Prussian War he set out to protect his newly unified nation of Germany by reaching friendly agreements with Austria-Hungary, Italy and even Russia • Bismark wanted to isolate France and ensure that Germany would never have to fight a “two-front war” • This plan was ineffective because of differences between Austria-Hungary and Russia over the Balkans

  7. Origins of the Alliance System • The rest of Europe must respond to Germany • Triple Alliance • Germany • Austria-Hungary • Italy • Triple Entente • Britain • France • Russia • Stage is set for all out warfare on the continent of Europe

  8. 1. The Alliance System Triple Entente: Triple Alliance:

  9. Europe in 1914

  10. The Major Players: 1914-17 Allied Powers: Central Powers: Nicholas II [Rus] Wilhelm II [Ger] George V [Br] Victor Emmanuel II [It] Enver Pasha[Turkey] Pres. Poincare [Fr] Franz Josef [A-H]

  11. Problems facing Europe in the early 1900’s • The Balkan Crisis (“The Powder Keg”) • A weak Ottoman Empire was no longer able to contain the Balkan territories desire for “self-determination” • Serbia was independent and sought to unite the entire region and align with Russia • Austria-Hungary annexed Bosnia and Herzegovina in 1908 in order to prevent Russia from gaining territory and strategic ports. • Various conflicts occurred, usually with one nation being humiliated, until nations had strengthened themselves to the point that they could stand firm.

  12. Problems facing Europe in the early 1900’s • Competition for colonies and threats of violence

  13. The“Spark”

  14. Immediate Cause of WWI Assassination of Archduke Ferdinand in the Balkans by a Slavic nationalist

  15. Archduke Franz Ferdinand & His Family

  16. The Assassination: Sarajevo

  17. The Assassin: GavriloPrincip

  18. Plot to break-up Austria-Hungarian empire • Serbian nationalists(Gavrilo Princip “The Black Hand) plotted to break-up the Austria-Hungarian empire • Archduke Ferdinand and his wife were shot and killed • Chain reaction leads to the start of WWI

  19. Pan-Slavism: The Balkans, 1914 The“Powder Keg”of Europe

  20. Austria-Hungary blamed Serbia for the murders of the archduke and his wife and placed an ultimatum on Serbia. Serbia refused to comply with the ultimatum Austria-Hungary declared war on Serbia (7/28/1914) Russia, a Slavic nation and friend of Serbia, mobilizes it’s forces in preparation for war. Germany, an ally of Austria-Hungary, declared war on Russia Germany also declared war on France, an ally of Russia Germany invaded Belgium (8/3/1914) so that German forces could enter France more easily. Britain declared war on Germany

  21. Who’s To Blame?


  23. European Battleground

  24. European Battleground • Triple Alliance becomes the Central Powers: • Germany, Austria-Hungary, Ottoman Empire • Triple Entente becomes the Allied Powers: • Britain, France, Russia (later joined by Italy and the U.S.) • Who was to blame? (see graphic organizer) • U.S. remains neutral under the leadership of President Woodrow Wilson • Thriving nation, across the pond

  25. European Battleground • Three Front War • Western Front – extended across Belgium and northeastern France to Switzerland • Eastern Front – extended from the Baltic Sea to Black Sea • Southern Front – ran between Italy and Austria-Hungary

  26. A Multi-Front War

  27. The Schlieffen Plan

  28. The Western Front

  29. Recruits of the Central Powers A German Soldier Says Farewell to His Mother Austro-Hungarians

  30. New French Recruits

  31. European Battleground • Trench Warfare • Armies reached a stalemate and “dug-in”. This resulted in tremendous loss of life and very little movement • “No-man’s land” = region between the enemy trenches • New weapons • Poison gas / gas mask • Airplane • Subs • Tanks • Automatic Machine Gun

  32. Poison Gas

  33. Trench Warfare “No Man’s Land”

  34. Mobilization • Home by Christmas! • No major war in 50 years! • Nationalism! It's a long way to Tipperary, It's a long way to go; It's a long way to Tipperary, To the sweetest girl I know! Goodbye, Piccadilly, Farewell, Leicester Square, It's a long, long way to Tipperary, But my heart's right there!

  35. U.S. Involvement

  36. U.S. Involvement • April 1917, President Wilson asks Congress to declare war on Germany based on… • Unrestricted submarine warfare – Germany was sinking any vessels they encountered in the Atlantic Ocean, even if they had American passengers on board. • Lusitania – British passenger ship was sunk in 1915 killing 1,200 people including 128 Americans.

  37. Allied Ships Sunk by U-Boats

  38. The Sinking of the Lusitania

  39. U.S. Involvement • Zimmerman Note • Britain intercepted a message from German foreign secretary (Arthur Zimmerman) to Mexico. Message indicated Germany would support Mexico if they were to wage war against the U.S. to reclaim land in American southwest

  40. The Zimmerman Telegram

  41. The YanksAre Coming!

  42. U.S. Involvement • American entrance turned the tide of the war • Russia had withdrawn from the war in 1917 due to civil unrest in their own country  no more 2-front war (ADD: Treaty of Brest-Litovsk) • Germany was now able to concentrate troops on the western front • American reinforcements allowed allies to hold off the last German push, which came within 40 miles of Paris

  43. Americans in the Trenches

  44. Recruitment Posters