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Lifestyle Diseases

Lifestyle Diseases

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Lifestyle Diseases

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  1. Lifestyle Diseases Forrest Dolgener, Ph.D. Professor School Health, Physical Education and Leisure Services

  2. Cardiovascular Diseases Incidence • High Blood Pressure - 50,000,000 • Coronary Heart Disease - 13,900,000 • Stroke - 4,000,000 • Rheumatic fever/heart disease - 1,800,000 • More than 1 in 5 males and females have some form of CVD

  3. Deaths from CVD • Almost 1,000,000 deaths in 2005 • CAD is #1 cause of death in US • Stroke is #3 cause of death in US • ~ 40% of all deaths • Since 1900, CVD has been the No. 1 killer in U.S • More than 2,600 Americans die each day from CVD • CVD claims more lives than next 7 causes

  4. Deaths from CVD • Approximately half the deaths are females and half are males • 36% of deaths occur prematurely (before age 75) • If all forms of major cardiovascular disease were eliminated, life expectancy would rise by 10 years; If cancer were eliminated, life expectancy would rise 3 years.

  5. HEART

  6. BLOOD DISTRIBUTION AT REST

  7. Coronary Heart Disease • Single largest killer of males and females • Almost 500,000 deaths per year • Half die within 1 hour of onset of symptoms • In 48% of men and 63% of women who die suddenly, there were no previous symptoms

  8. Women and CHD • Women suffer heart attacks an average 10 years later than men • Since 1984, CVD has killed more women than men • 1 in 2 women will die from CVD; 1 in 26 will die from breast cancer.

  9. Unalterable Risk Factors • Age • Gender • Heredity

  10. Alterable Risk Factors • Sedentary Life Style • High Blood Pressure • High Blood Cholesterol • Smoking • Diabetes Mellitus

  11. Heart Attack Warning Signs • Chest Discomfort (angina pectoris) • Discomfort in other areas of upper body • Shortness of breath • Cold sweat • Nausea • Light headedness

  12. Cholesterol Types & Values • Major cholesterol types • High Density Lipoprotein (HDL) • Low Density Lipoportein (LDL) • Very Low Density Lipoprotein (VLDL) • Total Cholesterol = HLD + LDL + VLDL • TC < 200 mg/dl • LDL < 130 mg/dl

  13. Risk Ratio (RR) • RR = Total Cholesterol/HDL • if RR > 4.0 = increased risk • if RR < 4.0 = decreased risk • You can lower your risk by either increasing HDL or decreasing TC or both

  14. Risk Ratio Example • Total Cholesterol = 250 mg/dl • HDL = 40 mg/dl • RR = 250/40 = 6.25 (risky) • Total Cholesterol = 250 mg/dl • HDL = 65 mg/dl • RR = 3.8 (good)

  15. Lowering Your Cholesterol • Consume less saturated fat in the diet • eat lean meat and low fat dairyfoods • eat less processed foods • cook only with mono- or polyunsaturates • Consume less cholesterol in the diet • eat lean meat and low fat dairy foods • use only vegetable oils (no tropical oils)

  16. Hypertension Ideal pressure is < 120/80 Hypertension is >140/90. Hypertension can be reduced by: Regular exercise program Reduced sodium intake Drugs

  17. Hemorrhage Infarction CEREBRAL INFARCTION AND HEMORRHAGE

  18. Stroke Warning Signs • Sudden numbness or weakness of face, arm, leg, especially on one side of body • Sudden confusion, problems speaking or understanding • Sudden trouble seeing in one or both eyes • Sudden loss of coordination, trouble walking, dizzy • Sudden severe headache with no known cause

  19. Unalterable Stroke Risk Factors • Age • Heredity • Race • Gender • Previous transient ischemic attack (TIA)

  20. Alterable Stroke Risk Factors • High Blood Pressure • Smoking • Diabetes Mellitus • High Cholesterol • Physical Inactivity • Obesity • Atrial fibrillation • Carotid or peripheral artery disease

  21. Cancer • Second leading cause of death • Prostate - 334,000 (99%) • Breast - 180,200 (97%) • Lung - 178,000 (14%) • Colon & Rectum - 131,200 (61%) • Testicular - 7,200 (91%)

  22. Early Warning Signs • C - Change in bowel or bladder habits • A - A sore throat that does not heal • U - Unusual bleeding or discharge • T - Thickening or lump • I - Indigestion or difficulty swallowing • O - Obvious change in wart or mole • N - Nagging cough or hoarseness

  23. Risk Factors • Heredity • Nutrition • high fat • low vegetables & fruits (anti-oxidants, fiber) • Smoking • Environment • Sedentary Lifestyle

  24. Causes of Skin Cancer • Total amount of sun received • Acute overexposure (sunburn) • Most receive 80% of exposure by age 18 • 1 in 7 will develop some form of skin cancer in their lifetime

  25. Tanning • Tanning is the skin’s normal response to UV light • Tanning is protective reaction to prevent further injury • Tanning does not prevent skin cancer

  26. Factors Determining UV Level • UV light is greater today than in the past due to reduction in ozone layer • The following increase UV light: • Altitude • Proximity to the equator • Less cloud cover

  27. Risk Factors for Skin Cancer • Genetics • Northern European heritage • Fair skin • Environment • Geography • Sun Exposure

  28. Types of Skin Cancer • Basal Cell Carcinoma • Squamous Cell Carcinoma • Melanoma

  29. Basal Cell Carcinoma • Most common form of cancer • Occurs in basal cells at the bottom of the epidermis • Occurs most often in males • Occurs on most exposed areas: face, ears, neck, scalp, shoulders, back • Rarely does it go deeper than epidermis and metastasize

  30. Basal Cell Carcinoma

  31. Basal Cell Carcinoma

  32. Basal Cell Carcinoma

  33. Squamous Cell Carcinoma • Occurs in outer most cells of epidermis • Second most common form of skin cancer • Usually confined to epidermis but will eventually penetrate the underlying tissues and can metastasize. • Most often occurs on exposed areas like basal cell carcinoma.

  34. Squamous Cell Carcinoma

  35. Squamous Cell Carcinoma

  36. Melanoma • Arises in melanocytes • Most serious form of skin cancer • Most rapidly increasing from of cancer • Penetrates and metastasizes quickly • Successful treatment dependent on early diagnosis.

  37. Melanoma

  38. Preventing Skin Cancer • Minimize exposure to sun between hours of 10:00 am and 3:00 pm • Apply SPF-15 sunscreen or higher when exposed • Wear protective clothing & sun glasses • Avoid UV radiation from tanning beds • Protect your children!! • Examine skin head to toe every 3 months

  39. Clinical Screenings TEST Gender AGE Freq. Sigmoidoscopy M & F >50 3-5 Fecal Blood M & F >50 yearly Digital Rectal M & F >40 yearly Prostate & PSA M >50 yearly Mammography F 40? 1-2 Pap Test F >18 yearly

  40. Top 10 Ways to Avoid Cancer • Don’t smoke or chew • Check your house for radon • Perform regular BSE and TSE • Females get annual pap test • Get regular clinical screenings when age appropriate

  41. Top 10 Continued • Avoid sunburns • Eat lots of vegetables • Eat low fat • Eat moderate protein • Exercise

  42. Diabetes Mellitus • Abnormal carbohydrate metabolism due to lack of insulin or decreased insulin sensitivity • Type I - insulin-dependent (IDDM) • Type II - non-insulin dependent (NIDDM)

  43. Symptoms of Diabetes • Thirst • Fatigue & Weakness • Weight Loss • Hunger • Overeating • Blurred Vision

  44. Risk Factors for Diabetes • Heredity • Age • Obesity • Physical Inactivity

  45. Benefits of Exercise • Helps control weight • Has an insulin-like effect • May reduce the requirement for insulin

  46. Osteoporosis • Disease characterized by low bone mass and deterioration of bone tissue • Increases rate of bone fractures and skeletal abnormalities