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The Food Pyramid

The Food Pyramid

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The Food Pyramid

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  1. The Food Pyramid A guide to daily food choices

  2. Key terms • Nutrients • Whole grain • Refined grains

  3. Nutrition • Nutrients are chemical substances in food that help maintain the body • Some nutrients supply energy to the body • Some nutrients provide the building blocks for the body’s cells and tissues, such as kin, bones, and muscles • Some nutrients are necessary for the chemical reactions that take place in the body

  4. Nutrients • The food people eat has a major impact on their health • The U.S. Department of Agriculture and the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services have developed guidelines for healthy eating

  5. Healthy Diets • For a healthy diet, a person must eat a variety of foods • A healthy diet also includes all the nutrients a person needs to stay healthy • To help people make wise choices, the Food Guide Pyramid was developed • The Food Guide Pyramid is a diagram that organizes food into groups that have similar nutrients • It then recommends how many servings one should eat from each group each day

  6. The food pyramid

  7. The Food Guide Pyramid

  8. In with the new: my plate

  9. Grains • 6 ounces each day • Make half your grains whole • Any food made from wheat, rice, oats, cornmeal, barley or another cereal grain is a grain product. • Bread, pasta, oatmeal, breakfast cereals, tortillas, and grits are examples of grain products. • Grains are divided into 2 subgroups: • whole grains • refined grains.

  10. Grains • Whole grains contain the entire grain kernel ― the bran, germ, and endosperm. • Examples include: • whole-wheat flour • bulgur (cracked wheat) • oatmeal • whole cornmeal • brown rice

  11. Grains • Refined grains have been milled, a process that removes the bran and germ. • This is done to give grains a finer texture and improve their shelf life, but it also removes dietary fiber, iron, and many B vitamins. • Some examples of refined grain products are: • white flour • degermed cornmeal • white bread • white rice

  12. Grains • Some commonly eaten grain products are: Whole grains: • brown rice • buckwheat • bulgur (cracked wheat) • oatmeal • popcorn • Ready-to-eat breakfast cereals: • whole wheat cereal flakes • whole grain barley • whole grain cornmeal • whole rye • whole wheat bread • whole wheat crackers • whole wheat pasta • whole wheat sandwich buns and rolls • whole wheat tortillas • wild rice Refined grains: • cornbread • corn tortillas • couscous • crackers • flour tortillas • grits • noodles Pasta: • spaghetti • macaroni • pitas • pretzels Ready-to-eat breakfast cereals: • corn flakes • white bread • white sandwich buns and rolls • white rice

  13. Vegetables • 2 ½ cups per day • Any vegetable or 100% vegetable juice counts as a member of the Vegetable Group. • Vegetables may be: • Raw • Cooked • Fresh • Frozen • Canned • Dried/dehydrated • May be whole, cut-up, or mashed

  14. Vegetables • Vegetables are organized into 5 subgroups, based on their nutrient content. • Some commonly eaten vegetables in each subgroup are: Dark green vegetables • broccoli • collard greens • dark green leafy lettuce • mustard greens • romaine lettuce • spinach • turnip greens Red & orange vegetables • acorn squash • butternut squash • carrots • pumpkin • red peppers • sweet potatoes • tomatoes • tomato juice Starchy vegetables • corn • black-eyed peas (not dry) • green bananas • green peas • green lima beans • plantains • potatoes Beans and peas • black beans • black-eyed peas) • kidney beans • lentils • navy beans • pinto beans • soy beans • split peas • white beans Other vegetables • artichokes • asparagus • brusselsprouts • cabbage • cauliflower • celery • cucumbers • eggplant • green beans • green peppers • Iceberg lettuce • mushrooms • okra • onions • turnips

  15. fruits • 1 ½ cups per day • Any fruit or 100% fruit juice counts as part of the Fruit Group. • Fruits may be: • Fresh • Canned • Frozen • Dried • may be whole, cut-up, or pureed

  16. fruits • Some commonly eaten fruits are: • Apples • Apricots • Bananas • Nectarines • Oranges • Peaches • Pears • Papaya • Pineapple • Plums • Prunes • Raisins • Tangerines • Cherries • Grapefruit • Grapes • Kiwi fruit • Lemons • Limes • Mangoes Berries: • strawberries • blueberries • raspberries Melons: • cantaloupe • honeydew • watermelon Mixed fruits: • fruit cocktail 100% Fruit juice: • orange • apple • grape • grapefruit

  17. Milk, Yogurt & cheese • 3 cups per day • All fluid milk products and many foods made from milk are considered part of this food group. • Most Dairy Group choices should be fat-free or low-fat. • Foods made from milk that retain their calcium content are part of the group. • Foods made from milk that have little to no calcium, such as cream cheese, cream, and butter, are not. • Calcium-fortified soymilk (soy beverage) is also part of the Dairy Group.

  18. Milk, Yogurt & cheese • Choose fat-free or low-fat milk, yogurt, and cheese. • If sweetened milk products are chosen (flavored milk, yogurt, drinkable yogurt, desserts), the added sugars also count against your maximum limit for "empty calories” • For those who are lactose intolerant, smaller portions (such as 4 fluid ounces of milk) may be well tolerated. • Calcium-fortified foods and beverages such as cereals, orange juice, or rice or almond beverages may provide calcium, but may not provide the other nutrients found in dairy products.

  19. Milk, Yogurt & cheese • Some commonly eaten choices in the Dairy Group are: Milk all fluid milk: • fat-free (skim) • low fat (1%) • reduced fat (2%) • whole milk Flavored milks: • chocolate • strawberry • lactose-reduced milks • lactose-free milks Milk-based desserts • puddings • ice milk • frozen yogurt • ice cream • Calcium-fortified soymilk • (soy beverage) Cheese Hard natural cheeses: • cheddar • mozzarella • Swiss • Parmesan Soft cheeses: • ricotta • cottage cheese Processed cheeses: • American Yogurt All yogurt: • fat-free • low fat • reduced fat • whole milk yogurt

  20. Meat & beans • 5 ounces per day • All foods made from meat, poultry, seafood, beans and peas, eggs, processed soy products, nuts, and seeds are considered part of the Protein Foods Group. • Beans and peas are also part of the Vegetable Group. • Select a variety of protein foods to improve nutrient intake and health benefits, including at least 8 ounces of cooked seafood per week. • Meat and poultry choices should be lean or low-fat.

  21. Meat & beans • Some commonly eaten choices in the Protein Foods Group, with selection tips, are: Meats Lean cuts of: • beef • ham • lamb • pork Game meats: • bison • rabbit • venison Lean ground meats: • beef • pork • lamb Lean luncheon or deli meats Organ meats: • liver • giblets Poultry • chicken • duck • goose • turkey • ground chicken and turkey Eggs • chicken eggs • duck eggs Beans and peas • black beans • black-eyed peas • lima beans (mature) • navy beans • pinto beans Processed soy products: • tofu • white beans • bean burgers • veggie burgers • texturized vegetable • protein (TVP) Nuts and seeds • almonds • cashews • mixed nuts • peanuts • peanut butter • pecans • pistachios • pumpkin seeds • sesame seeds • sunflower seeds • walnuts Seafood • Finfish such as: • catfish • flounder • halibut • mackerel • salmon • sea bass • snapper • swordfish • trout • tuna Shellfish such as: • clams • crab • lobster • mussels • octopus • oysters • scallops • squid (calamari) • shrimp Canned fish such as: • anchovies • clams • tuna • sardines

  22. Fats, oils, & sweets • Oils are fats that are liquid at room temperature, like the vegetable oils used in cooking. • Oils come from many different plants and from fish. • Oils are NOT a food group, but they provide essential nutrients. • Therefore, oils are included in USDA food patterns. • Some common oils are: • canola oil • corn oil • cottonseed oil • olive oil • safflower oil • soybean oil • sunflower oil

  23. Fats, oils, & sweets • Some oils are used mainly as flavorings, such as walnut oil and sesame oil. • A number of foods are naturally high in oils, like: • nuts • olives • some fish • avocados • Foods that are mainly oil include mayonnaise, certain salad dressings, and soft (tub or squeeze) margarine with no trans fats.

  24. Fats, oils, & sweets • A few plant oils, however, including coconut oil, palm oil, and palm kernel oil, are high in saturated fats and for nutritional purposes should be considered to be solid fats. • Solid fats are fats that are solid at room temperature, like butter and shortening. • Solid fats come from many animal foods and can be made from vegetable oils through a process called hydrogenation. • Some common solid fats are: • butter • milk fat • beef fat (tallow, suet) • chicken fat • pork fat (lard) • stick margarine • shortening • partially hydrogenated oil

  25. Dietary Guidelines for americans • The Dietary Guidelines for Americans were then developed • The guidelines suggest actions to promote health • Choose Sensibly • Choose a diet that is low in saturated fat and cholesterol and moderate in total fat • Choose beverages and foods to moderate your intake of sugars • Choose and prepare foods with less salt • Build a Healthy Base • Let the Pyramid guide your food choices • Choose a variety of grains daily, especially whole grains • Choose a variety of fruits and vegetables daily • Keep food safe to eat • Aim for Fitness • Aim for a healthy weight • Be physically active each day

  26. Eating out • People who eat in commercial restaurants have a wide choice of what to eat • You can eat one meal in a restaurant, and the rest of the meals at home • you can eat all your meals at restaurants • You can eat all your meals at home • For this reason, restaurants are concerned with taste and appearance • However, restaurants do try to provide offerings from each part of the Food Guide Pyramid

  27. Eating out: McDonald’s Fats, Oils, & Sweets Meat, Poultry, Fish, Dry Beans, Eggs, & Nuts Milk, Yogurt, & Cheese Vegetable Fruit Bread, Cereal, Rice & Pasta

  28. Institutional foodservices • Institutional foodservices are much more concerned with nutrition • In many cases, people who eat in institutional foodservices have no choice in where to eat • For example: • People in hospitals • Soldiers in the armed services • People in prison facilities • Therefore, institutional foodservices pay close attention to the nutritional content of each meal they serve

  29. The end