Animal Behavior Chp 33 Pp. 858-879
Table of Contents • 33.1 Innate Behavior • 33.2 Learned Behavior
33.1 Innate Behavior • Behavior is anything an animal does in response to a stimulus. • A stimulus is an environmental change that directly influences the activity of an organism
33.1 Innate Behavior • Animals carry on behaviors with adaptive value: • Getting food • Avoiding predators • Caring for young • Finding shelter • Attracting mates • Enable reproduction & survival of species
33.1 Innate Behavior • Inherited Behavior Natural selection favors certain behaviors. • To capture prey, toads detect & follow movement. The tongue flipping out is a fixed action pattern.
33.1 Innate Behavior • Genes form the basis for innate behavior. • Hormonal balance • Nervous system • Sense organs for sight, touch, sound odor ID • Affect how sensitive organisms are to stimuli
33.1 Innate Behavior • Automatic responses • Reflexes • Involves no conscious control • Fight or flight response controlled by hormones & nervous system • Fixed Action Patterns • Instincts
33.1 Innate Behavior • Fixed Action Patterns • Quick automatic response • Instincts • Complex pattern of innate behavior • Animal recognizes stimulus & continues until all parts of behavior are accomplished
33.1 Innate Behavior • Instincts • Courtship Behavior • Bowerbirds create displays to attract mates • Bowerbird Display video
33.1 Innate Behavior • Fireflies flash distinctive light patterns that are species specific.
33.1 Innate Behavior • Territoriality reduces competition. • A territory is a physical space an animal defends against others of its species. • Breeding area • Feeding area • Potential mates Male Siberian Tigers
33.1 Innate Behavior • Mark territories with pheromones • Attack & drive intruders away • Improves survival of young and of the species Lion performing scuffing ceremony.
33.1 Innate Behavior • Aggressive behavior threatens other animals • Used to intimidate others of same species • To defend young, territory or resource
33.1 Innate Behavior • Submission leads to dominance hierarchies • Form of social ranking within a group in which some are subordinate or dominant to others • Hierarchy innate but position may be learned Wolves with female dominance hierarchy
33.1 Innate Behavior • Behavior resulting from internal & external cues • Biological or circadian rhythms, day/night sleep cycle • Seasonal cycle • Migration- instinctive seasonal movement • Hibernation • Estivation Migrating caribou
33.1 Innate Behavior • Hibernation • State in which body temp drops, oxygen consumption & breathing rate drops • Conserves energy • Estivation • Reduced metabolism for living in extreme heat or to drought or lack of food
33.2 Learned Behavior • When behavior changes due to practice or experience • Allows animals to adapt to change • Especially important to those with longer life spans Black bears have learned to choose minivans as targets for raiding food! (Nat. Geo)
33.2 Learned Behavior • Habituation • An animal becomes habituated when it no longer responds to a stimulus. • The gorillas shown here are habituated to the presence of humans.
33.2 Learned Behavior • Imprinting • Form of learning that occurs at a specific critical time forming a social attachment to an object or individual • Birds imprint within a day or two of hatching • Usually irreversible CA condor w/ puppet
33.2 Learned Behavior • By trial & error • Animal receives a reward for making a particular response • Motivation is internal need that causes an animal to act; necessary for learning to take place • Usually involves satisfying a need
33.2 Learned Behavior • Classical conditioning- learning by association • Pavlov noted that dogs salivate at smell of food • By ringing a bell when presenting food he established association • Eventually sound of bell resulted in dog salivating • Conditioned response Ivan Pavlov
33.2 Learned Behavior • Insight- most complex kind of learning • Animal uses previous experience to respond to new situation • Ex. Solving math problems Sea Otter
33.2 Learned Behavior • Communication- exchange of info resulting in a change of behavior
33.2 Learned Behavior • Communicate by sound • Vibrate in all directions • Warnings, invitations, location, species even gender Wolf Howling
33.2 Learned Behavior • Signal by odors- • Ant odor trails • Moth pheromones • Scent-marked territory
33.2 Learned Behavior • Some communication is both innate & learned. • Songbirds have the innate ability to sing; however, they learn their regional dialect. Goldfinch Song
33.2 Learned Behavior • Language uses symbols to represent ideas. • Requires complex nervous system, memory and insight. • Humans can benefit from using knowledge gained by others.