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Chapter 2

An Introduction to Human Geography The Cultural Landscape, 10e James M. Rubenstein. Chapter 2. Population. PPT by Abe Goldman. Distribution of World Population. Population concentrations The four largest population clusters Other population clusters Sparsely populated regions

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Chapter 2

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  1. An Introduction to Human Geography The Cultural Landscape, 10e James M. Rubenstein Chapter 2 Population PPT by Abe Goldman

  2. Distribution of World Population • Population concentrations • The four largest population clusters • Other population clusters • Sparsely populated regions • Dry lands – Cold lands • Wet lands – High lands • Population density • Arithmetic density • Physiological density • Agricultural density

  3. AP HG Ch 2 notes: (INTRO) • Why important to study pop.: a) pop. = 6 ½ bill., more than ever before b) increase rate in 2nd 1/2 of 20th cent. faster than ever b4 c) *almost all of global pop. growth is in LDC’s…where they have least resources • demography: study of pop. characteristics: how pop. is distributed spatially by age, gender, fertility, health, occupation, etc. • some problems = where is major pop. growth… why it is growing at differ. rates in differ. places • overpopulation: # people in certain area & the ability of these people to have needed resources to live decently

  4. World Population Cartogram This cartogram display countries by size of their population rather than their land area. (Only countries with 50 million or more people are named.)

  5. The Earth at Night…http://antwrp.gsfc.nasa.gov/apod/image/0011/earthlights2_dmsp_big.jpg

  6. KEY 1: Pop distribution basically = concentration & density Pop. Concentrations: 3/4 of people live on 5% of Earth's surface -----remember 71% of surf. = oceans, other areas are harsh • 5 major concentr. = E. Asia, S. Asia, SE Asia, W. Europe, Eastern N. Amer. • similarities.: most near water, low-lying, fert. soil, temperate (warm, but not hot) • climate & all betw. 10º & 55º N lat. , except for parts of SE Asia ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- • Hectares: 10,000 sq meters or 2.47 acres

  7. 1) East Asia #1 in pop. (China, Koreas, Japan, Taiwan): 1/4 world pop. here • China: #1 in pop., #3 in land area; most on river valleys & coasts; 3/4 rural--most farmers • Japan: most in Tokyo, Osaka…Korea: most in Seoul • 3/4 of Japan. & S. Kor. = urban -most urban jobs in = industry or service 2) South Asia: #2 in pop.; (Pakistan, India, Bangladesh, Sri Lanka) --3/4 of this pop. in India -most on coast or along Indus & Ganges Rivers; 1/4 cities most of pop. = rural farmers

  8. World Population Distribution World population is very unevenly distributed across the Earth’s surface & it can be compared to climate distribution.

  9. 3) SE Asia: #4 pop.; (Islands: Java, Sumatra, Borneo, Pap. New Guinea, & Philippines, + Thailand, Vietnam, etc.) -Indonesia = 4th most pop. country; --most are farmers in rural areas • In these 3 Asian areas = over 50% of world’s pop. on only 10% of world's land 4) Europe: #3 pop.; 75% in cities; less than 20% farmers (many of farmers in S &E Eur.) • Import most of food rather than produce • This led to lots of colonization (Amer., India, China, Africa, etc.) looking for resources & these resources = lots of manufacturing 5) Eastern N. Amer.: #5; NE USA & SE Canada • mostly urban… less than 5% = farmers

  10. B) Sparsely pop. areas: too dry, wet, cold, high Ecumene: areas that are permanently settled --more were too harsh…innovations increase ecumene 1) dry lands: 20% of Earth's surface; most in deserts: Sahara, Arabian, Gobi (N. Afr. SW & Centr. Asia) growing desert = desertification -little water for crops, etc., but many have oil 2) wet lands: too much rain; most = Equatorial rain forests: excess rain + excess heat = poor agricul….but can grow some rice 3) cold lands: area at & near N & S Poles; few plants & animals 4) high lands: highest mtns. = steep, snow-covered -exceptions: parts of Latin Amer. & Africa where higher areas is better than lower hot/wet areas

  11. Expansion of the Ecumene 5000 B.C.–A.D. 1900 The ecumene, or the portion of The Earth w/ permanent human settlement, has expanded to cover most of the world’s land area.

  12. C) Population density: look at it 3 ways… (Deja vu!!!) 1) arithmetic density (akapopulation density): -# people per unit of land…USA = 30 per sq. km. (77/sq mi)…but NY City (Manhattan) = 21,400/sq.km (55,400/sq.mi.) 2) Physiological density: # people per unit of arable land: is a more meaningful measure b/c can show pressure on the land due to population EX: Egypt: arithm. density = 70/sq.km; but physiolg. density = 3,503/sq. km 3) agricultural density: ratio farmers to arable land --lower agr. density = higher technology; -MDC's: usually lower agri. density, & LDC’s usually higher; -in MDC’s, lots of land & few farmers means more pop. to work in factories, etc.

  13. Arithmetic Population Density Fig. 2-4: Arithmetic population density: # of ppl per total land area. Highest densities found in parts of Asia & Eur.

  14. Physiological Density Fig. 2-5: Physiological density is the number of people per arable land area. This is a good measure of the relation between population and agricultural resources in a society.

  15. Distribution of World Population Growth • Natural Increase (NIR) • Fertility (TFR) • Mortality (IMR + MMR)

  16. KEY 2: Where Has World's Pop. Increased? Important terms: (NOTE: crude means "basic", i.e., not specified by age, etc) a) crude birth rate (CBR): # live births per 1,000 per year: CBR = 20 means for every 1000 in a place, were 20 births b) crude death rate (CDR) # deaths in year per 1,000 c) natural increase rate (NIR): % by which a pop. grows in a year…change CBR & CDR to %'s… --------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- • To calculate NIR: CBR - CDR = _____?____ • then divide by 1000 to get NIR EX: CBR = 25 CDR = 10 25 – 10 = 15 NI per 1000 ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------ Divide 15 by 1000 to get a % so it = 1.5% is NIR CBR = 40 CDR = 28 NIR = .012 = 1.2%

  17. World Population Growth1950–2000 Fig. 2-6: Total world population increased from 2.5 to 6 billion in this half century. The natural increase rate peaked in the early 1960s and has declined since, but the number of people added each year did not peak until 1990.

  18. Natural increase: • Begin. of 21st cent., world NIR = 1.4; i.e., world pop. is growing yearly by 1.4 %: now over 6.7 billion --pop. growth is down somewhat (was 77 million in 2000; was 87 mil 1989) -doubling time: # yrs. it will take for pop. to double --at 1.4%, our doubling time is now 51 yrs -but in 1800 - 1950 to double…150 yrs. As CBR goes up, doubling time goes down; CBR down, dbl. time up; are inversely proportional NIR is over 2.0% in most of Africa, Lat. Amer., & Mid East (LDC’s…ones who can’t afford it)

  19. Natural Increase Rates **NIR is negative in Europe …means pop. is declining if you don't count immigrants **Remember! "N" = "natural") (NIR) = % of growth or decline in the pop. of a country per year (not including net migration). Countries in Africa & SW Asia have highest current rates; Russia & some European countries have negative rates.

  20. Crude Birth Rates (CBR) The crude birth rate (CBR) is the total # of births in a country per 1,000 population per year. Lowest rates: in Europe. Highest rates: Africa & several Asian countries.

  21. B) fertility: use CBR to study fertility; many sub-Saharan countries = CBR 40, but many Eurp. = less than 10 -total fertility rate (TFR): avg. # of kids a woman will have thru her child-bearing yrs (about 15-49) -look at map (49) w/spatial association: shows TFR -TFR over 6 in some Sub-Saharan countries! C) mortality: one important way to measure & look at = CDR; another way is infant mortality rate -IMR = of every 1,000 live births, # kids die b4 1 yr. old -usually use per 1000, not %…but sometimes = % -W. Eurp. = lowest IMR's (USA high for MDC) -in some LDC's = 100…which means 10% babies born alive die b4 1 yr. old

  22. Total Fertility Rates (TFR) The Total fertility rate (TFR) is the # of children an avg. woman in a society will have thru her childbearing years. Lowestrates: Europe. Highest: Africa & parts of Middle East.

  23. Infant Mortality Rates (IMR) The infant mortality rate: # of infant deaths per 1,000 live births per year. Highest: found in some of the poorest countries of Africa & Asia.

  24. IMR: strong indication of a country's health-care system.Why? (When I ask you “why?”, etc., you need to KNOW this!) -though USA = MDC, IMR higher than Canada & most Euro. countries….Why? • life expectancy: calculated at kid’s birth…means that child has a 50/50 chance of reaching a particular age -again, high in W. Eur. , low in sub-Saharan Afr. -MDC's: lower CBR's, TFR's, & IMR's…but higher life expectancy -LDC's: high CBR, TFR, & IMR, but low life expect. -CDR doesn’t have as wide a spread as CBR: 20 vs. 40 & LDC's actually bit lower than MDC's (p. 51) -this contradiction due to demographic transition

  25. Avg. Life Expectancy at birth Life expectancy at birth: Avg. # of years a newborn infant can expect to live. Highest: generally in the wealthiest countries. Lowest: in the poorest countries.

  26. Crude Death Rates (CDR) The crude death rate (CDR): total # of deaths in a country per 1,000 population per year. B/C wealthy countries are in a late stage of the demographic transition, they often have a higher CDR than poorer countries!!!!!

  27. KEY 3:Demographic Transition: Why pop. increases at differ. rates in differ. places at differ. times A)Demographic Transition: countries go thru 4 stages involving changes in CBR, CDR, & NIR -every country at 1 stage or another…& it is progressive: once go into a stage, you don't go back… so far Stage 1: low growth: hi CBR, hi CDR, NIR about zero -in earliest humans, most all = same stage; CBR & CDR might vary from year to year, but hi on avg. -most all = hunter/gatherers for about 392,000 yrs.

  28. 1stagricultural revolution: 8,000 BCE: happened in various places & pop. grew faster Agri-Revol.:When humans began to grow foods & domesticate animals… No longer move & scrounge as they had b/c they had stable food sources Still stayed basically at Stg 1 Low growth…for about another 10,000 yrs. -still problems w/ climate (famine), wars, disease, etc

  29. Stage 2: hi growth: hi CBR, lowering CDR, hi NIR Stg 2 comes in 2 sections: -2-a) pop. growth getting faster……. -2-b)growth slowing, but CBR/CDR gap still hi Innovation: a new idea or new way of doing something; can be technology or can be philosophical ideas -1750: Britain was 1st to come into Stg. 2 b/c was 1st w/ Industrial Revolution Later spread thru W. Europe……then USA

  30. Process of improv.: a)indust. techn. (steam eng., mass production, RR, later transportation innovations) b) brought wealth….which brought health innova., sanitation, hygiene, sewers, etc…= healthier… which means…less disease (Why did they improve these?) c) + food production w/ less labor = laborers for other jobs …also health + food  higher life expect.

  31. Other Eur. countries & USA didn’t hit Stg 2 til about 1800 -Stg. 2 didn’t diffuse to most of Africa, Asia, & Lat. Amer. til about 1950…& then world pop. climbed! *USA & Eur. moved to stg 2 b/c of industr./tech rev., BUT…others (Afr., Lat. Am., etc.) moved to stg 2 b/c of medical revolution in mid-20th cent. This meant improved med. practices = less diseases, less hardship = longer life & healthier life…(rid of TB, malaria, smallpox, etc.) = more having babies….

  32. Stage 3: moderate growth: CBR, CDR both lower -CBR still higher than CDR, so pop. grow but not so fast -CDR dropping, but not as sharp as stg 2 -most Eur. & N. Amer countries from stg 2  stg 3 in early 20th century… --most Asian/Lat. Amer. recent -but most African still in stg 2 Why do we move to stg 3? B/C ppl choose to have _____?____ WHY? 

  33. a) more babies survive (lower ___? __) b) less agric.--need less kids c) more in cities…less “chores” use for kids -when Child Labor laws cut out factory jobs, kids no longer bring in $$..school required = more $$ d) urban homes = less avg. space = crowded Stage 4: Low growth: CBR about = CDR --NIR approaching 0 = ZPG --ZPG can happen even if CBR bit higher than CDR: b/c some girls won’t reach fertil.: -so 2.1 TFR can = ZPG, unless lots of immigrants --most W. European countries in stg 4 & well below 2.1 TFR’s

  34. The Demographic Transition Model The demogra. trans. in 4 stages: -1st hi B & D 2nd -- then D rates declines 3rd -then in B rates decline 4th --then low B & D rates. BUT pop. highest in Stg 4 Pop. growth is most rapid in the 2nd stage.

  35. D-T Model w/ explanations, details…\Remember that D-T model looks at GROWTH rate (NIR) more than total population.

  36. --in USA, not quite at stg 4 b/c of diversity of pop. -Lat-Americans & Af-Americans have higher TFR’s; but Eur-Amer. tend to have TFR’s more like Euro. --social customs also enter in ? of stages… EX: families on farms: mom stays home & dad works at home & they have more kids…hands to work chores -as more women go to work & as families more in urban areas, have less kids

  37. Some E. Eur. countries have negative NIR b/c CDR higher than CBR…this is 1 of results of old communist system 1) CDR there result of hi pollution (few controls) 2) CBR result of strong fam.-planning…& 3) pessimism… (Why bring kids to this?) -may change later…but if notcould have a Stg 5… Note: a) at begin. of Stg 1, CBR & CDR both high (about 35- 40 per 1,000 --at Stg 4, both low (+ - 10/1000) b) BUT…total pop. in Stg 4 much higher than it is in Stg 1

  38. England= good EX: of demog. trans. & stages: WHY? Has good info for last 1000 yrs (kept records early), stable history & boundaries, & not lots of migration earlier to affect pop. Stg 1) low growth til 1750: b4 this pop. up & down... (Black Death dropped pop. in 1300’s, famine, etc.) Stg 2) hi growth: 1750-1880: CBR still hi, but CDR lowering -techn. innova. = more food, more $$$ invested in health…..stayed stg. 2 about 125 yrs Stg 3) Mod. Growth: 1880-early 1970’s -sharp CBR drop from 33 to 15; CDR fell some…19 to 12 Stg 4: Lo growth: early ‘70’s to now: --CBR betwn. 12-14 & CDR betwn 10-12 Engl. pop. grown about 1 mill. since 1970, BUT mainly thru immigration…NOT natural increase

  39. Demographic Transition in England England was one of the first countries to experience rapid population growth in the mid-eighteenth century, when it entered stage 2 of the demographic transition.

  40. Note that in England CBR & CDR dropped from about 40 to about 12 (stg. 1  stg.4) --but pop. up from 6 mill. (stg.1) to 50 mil (stg4) B) Population pyramids: use age & gender to show pop. w/in 5 yr. age groupings (youngest = 0 – 4yrs at pyramid base) -gives info RE: M vs. F & groups that might have specific needs or indications… Pyramid Shape comes mainly from the CBR of the community Stg. 2 country: Hi CBR w/ lot of kids so wide base Stg. 4: larger older pop., wider top

  41. 1) age distribution: age structure of pop. is important -dependency ratio: # of those too old or too young to work, so they depend a lot on the other part of the pop. -divide pop. in 3 sections…0-14, 15-64, 65- & older -about 1/3 under 15 in Stg. 2, LDC’s In stg. 4 countries, only about 1/3 = dependent -only about 1/5 under 15 in those MDC’s at or near stg 4 -large % of kid pop. = strain on resources for schools, health care, daycare, etc.

  42. % of Pop. under 15 (part of the ___?__ ratio) About 1/3 of world population is under 15, but the % by country varies: Most of Africa + some Asian: Over 40% Much of Europe: Under 20%

  43. In stg 4, ppl 65+ are larger % than in stg. 2 b/c longer life expectancy (see p. 58…lower rt. fig.) -in Europe over 65 = > 15%, but sub-Sahr.Africa = < 2% -is called the “graying” of the pop. (Eur. & N.Am.) -this can make CDR of stg 3 & 4 countries higher than stg 2 2) sex ratio: # of males per 100 females w/in pop. -more males born than females…but males have higher death rates -Eur. & N. Amer, sex ratio = 95:100; rest of world = 102:100 -in US, M vs. F under 15 yrs: 105:100 -at about 30, more F …& by 65, F = 60% of pop. -migration affects sex ratio: males more likely to migrate, so if hi immigration rates, usually more males

  44. 1) View pyramids on p. 63…make notations about shapes & why they have a specific shape 2) Study the 3 examples of countries in various stages of transi. Make notes about WHY each has the shape it has…

  45. Population Pyramids in U.S. Cities Fig. 2-16: Population pyramids can vary greatly, with different fertility rates (Laredo vs. Honolulu), or among military bases (Unalaska), college towns (Lawrence), and retirement communities (Naples).

  46. Copy items below & answer: a) Cape Verde: Stg 2 hi growth… --possible reasons why? --major problems? b) Chile: Stg 3: moderate growth… --poss. reason why? --major problems? c) Denmark: Stg 4 low growth: --poss. reasons why? --major problems?

  47. Rapid Growth in Cape Verde Fig. 2-17: Cape Verde, which entered stage 2 of the demographic transition in about 1950, is experiencing rapid population growth. Its population history reflects the impacts of famines and out-migration.

  48. Moderate Growth in Chile Fig. 2-18: Chile entered stage 2 of the demographic transition in the 1930s, and it entered stage 3 in the 1960s.

  49. Low Growth in Denmark Fig. 2-19: Denmark has been in stage 4 of the demographic transition since the 1970s, with little population growth since then. Its population pyramid shows increasing numbers of elderly and few children.

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