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Where we’ve come so far…

Where we’ve come so far…

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Where we’ve come so far…

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  1. Where we’ve come so far… Animal Behavior Core Concepts: • Tinbergen’s four categories of explanation • Proximate and ultimate • Individual, kin, and group selection • Genes and experience • Correlation versus causation • Constraints on Evolution • Animal Behavior methodologies • Experimental Design; Ethics; Avoiding the Deadly Sins

  2. Where we’ve come so far… Animal Behavior Core Concepts Common Assumptions that Need Correcting: • Assuming evolution and natural selection are directional or purposeful • Assuming we know the purpose of a phenotype (or why it evolved) • Anthropomorphic assumptions and use of metaphors • Assuming animals perceive the world the same way we do (Umwelt) • Assuming animals are not affected by our presence • Assumptions about sex roles

  3. Where we’ve come so far… Animal Behavior Core Concepts Common Assumptions that Need Correcting “Same Genotype, Different Phenotype”: Epigenetic effects on behavior • Central Dogma • Interactions between gene expression, nervous system, endocrine system, and behavior • Single gene effects (e.g., voles) • Quantitative trait loci (behaviors affected by multiple genes) • Inheritance • Epigenetics • Phenotypic plasticity • Environmental sex determination and sex change

  4. Where we’ve come so far… Animal Behavior Core Concepts Common Assumptions that Need Correcting “Same Genotype, Different Phenotype” “Same Population, Different Phenotype”: Ruff male polymorphisms • Mating Systems • B and C in Behavioral Ecology • Polymorphisms • Alternative reproductive strategies • Condition-dependent and genetically determined (e.g., Supergene) alternative strategies • Maintenance of genetically-determined alternative strategies • Developmental flexibility vs. developmental stability • Behavioral syndromes (animal personalities)

  5. Where we’ve come so far… Animal Behavior Core Concepts Common Assumptions that Need Correcting “Same Genotype, Different Phenotype” “Same Population, Different Phenotype” “Same Population, Different Information”: Social learning in rats • Single stimulus learning • Conditioning • Constraints on learning • Social learning • Teaching • Information processing: Stimulus filtering, biased data analysis • Information centers • B & C of group living for foraging success

  6. Where we are now: Animal Behavior Core Concepts Common Assumptions that Need Correcting “Same Genotype, Different Phenotype” “Same Population, Different Phenotype” “Same Population, Different Information” “Same Population, Different Interests”: Conflict between Conspecifics

  7. Cooperation

  8. Conflict: A behavior or behavioral interaction that is costly to one individual and beneficial to another individual of the same species. Sexual conflict Intrasexual competition Parent-offspring conflict Sibling conflict Furness et al. 2015 Furness et al. 2015

  9. Case Study: Sexual Cannibalism in Mantids

  10. Concept Mapping

  11. Cartooning Methods

  12. Interpreting Data