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# Part 2: Quantitative Methods

Part 2: Quantitative Methods. October 2, 2006. Sampling. High School Sports Officials Students enrolled in 5th grade in NM schools Albuquerque Residents The U.S. Electorate. National Association of Sports Officials Membership New Mexico 5th graders Albuquerque Phone Book

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## Part 2: Quantitative Methods

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1. Part 2: Quantitative Methods October 2, 2006

2. Sampling

3. High School Sports Officials Students enrolled in 5th grade in NM schools Albuquerque Residents The U.S. Electorate National Association of Sports Officials Membership New Mexico 5th graders Albuquerque Phone Book Registered Voters Target vs. Accessible Population

4. The Inferential size of sample Leap Simple Random Sampling volunteers Population Validity Systematic Sampling Sampling Random Sampling Stratified Error Processes Procedures Sampling Cluster Sampling Pros Selection Biased Convenience and and Sampling Sampling Cons Assignment

5. The Inferential Leap

6. Simple Random Sampling 1 092725 012157 827052 297980 625608 964134 2 104460 007903 484595 868313 274221 367181 3 676071 388003 266711 323324 044463 762803 4 881878 862385 203886 261061 096674 811548 5 534500 336348 086585 241740 581286 008435 6 094276 615776 242112 985859 075388 082003 1. Andrea 2. Tina 3. Paul 4. Wilbur 5. Sandra 6. Kathy 7. Jim 8.George 9. Emir 10. Becky 11. Sharon 12. Gladys 13. Jose 14. Bill 15. Sue 16. Erica 17. Aaron 18. Fred 19. Pam 20. Roger

7. Stratified Random Sampling 1 092725 012157 827052 297980 625608 964134 2 104460 007903 484595 868313 274221 367181 3 676071 388003 266711 323324 044405 762803 4 881878 862308 203886 261061 096674 811548 5 534500 336348 086585 241740 581286 008435 6 094276 615776 242112 985859 075388 082003 6. Paul 7. Wilbur 8. Jim 9. George 10. Emir 1. Andrea 2. Tina 3. Kathy 4. Sandra 5. Becky 6. Sharon 7. Gladys 8. Sue 9. Erica 10. Pam 1. Jose 2. Bill 3.Aaron 4. Fred 5. Roger

8. Systematic Sampling • Say you have a target population that has a 100,000 members. • And: • A list is available. • You need 1,000 cases for your sample. • 100,000/1000 = 100. • Select a random number from table. • Then select every 100th case.

9. Cluster Sampling • Naturally occurring groups. • State, district, school, classroom, student. • Randomly sample from one level then survey, interview, etc. • Multistage sampling. • Randomly select from one level. • Then randomly select within that level.

10. Convenience Sampling • Why convenient? • Sample that is located near the researcher • Connections with administrator or staff • Researcher is familiar with the setting • Data is already available • Shortcomings of convenience samples?

11. Volunteers in Sampling • How might volunteers differ? • Children having parental permission • More academically competent • More popular with peers • More physically attractive • Less likely to smoke or use drugs • More likely to be white • More likely to come from two-parent household • More likely to be involved in extracurricular activities • Less likely to be socially withdrawn • Less likely to be aggressive

12. Size of the Sample • Bigger is (usually) better. • Unless? • How big is big? Power analysis. • Practical issues. • Attrition. • Reliability. • Cost/ benefit.

13. Correlation& Instrumentation Reliability and Validity

14. Correlation Coefficients • Pearson product-moment correlation • The relationship between two variables of degree. • Positive: As one variable increases (or decreases) so does the other. • Negative: As one variable increases the other decreases. • Magnitude or strength of relationship • -1.00 to +1.00 • Correlation does not equate to causation

15. Positive Correlation

16. Negative Correlation

17. No Correlation

18. Correlations • Thickness of scatter plot determines strength of correlation, not slope of line. • For example see: • http://noppa5.pc.helsinki.fi/koe/corr/cor7.html • Remember correlation does not equate to causation.

19. Negative Correlation

20. Operationism vs. Essentialism • According to Stanovich • What are they? • How do they differ?

21. Essentialist • Like to argue about the meaning of our terms • “What does the theoretical concept really mean?” • Must have a complete and unambiguous understanding of the language involved. • Operationism • Link concepts to observable events that can be measured. • Concepts in science related to a set of operations. • Several slightly different tasks and behavioral events are used to converge on a concept.

22. Validity and Reliability • Validity is an important consideration in the choice of an instrument to be used in a research investigation • It should measure what it is supposed to measure • Researchers want instruments that will allow them to make warranted conclusions about the characteristics of the subjects they study • Reliability is another important consideration, since researchers want consistent results from instrumentation • Consistency gives researchers confidence that the results actually represent the achievement of the individuals involved

23. Reliability • Test-retest reliability • Inter-rater reliability • Parallel forms reliability • Internal consistency (a.k.a. Cronbach’s alpha)

24. Validity • Face • Does it appear to measure what it purports to measure? • Content • Do the items cover the domain? • Construct • Does it measure the unobservable attribute that it purports to measure?

25. Validity • Criterion • Predictive • Concurrent • Consequential

26. Types of validity (cont.) Here the instrument samples some and only of the construct

27. Types of validity Here the instrument samples all and more of the construct

28. The construct Here the instrument fails to sample ANY of the construct The instrument

29. The construct Here the instrument samples some but not all of the construct The instrument

30. Perfection!

31. Reliability and Validity

32. In groups of 3 to 4 • Sampling • What is the target population? • What sampling procedure was used? • Do you think the sample is representative? • Why or why not? • Measurement • What types of reliability and validity evidence are provided? • What else would you like to know?

33. Ways to Classify Instruments • Who Provides the Information? • Themselves: Self-report data • Directly or indirectly: from the subjects of the study • From informants (people who are knowledgeable about the subjects and provide this information)

34. Rating scales Interview schedules Tally sheets Flowcharts Performance checklists Observation forms Types of Researcher-completed Instruments

35. Excerpt from a Behavior Rating Scale for Teachers Instructions: For each of the behaviors listed below, circle the appropriate number, using the following key: 5 = Excellent, 4 = Above Average, 3 = Average, 2 = Below Average, 1 = Poor. A. Explains course material clearly. 1 2 3 4 5 B. Establishes rapport with students. 1 2 3 4 5 C. Asks high-level questions. 1 2 3 4 5 D. Varies class activities. 1 2 3 4 5

36. Excerpt from a Graphic Rating Scale Instructions: Indicate the quality of the student’s participation in the following class activities by placing an X anywhere along each line. Always Frequently Occasionally Seldom Never 1. Listens to teacher’s instructions. Always Frequently Occasionally Seldom Never 2. Listens to the opinions of other students. Always Frequently Occasionally Seldom Never 3. Offers own opinions in class discussions.

37. Sample Observation Form

38. Discussion Analysis Tally Sheet

39. Performance Checklist Noting Student Actions

40. Questionnaires Self-checklists Attitude scales Personality inventories Achievement/aptitude tests Performance tests Projective devices Types of Subject-completed Instruments

41. Example of a Self-Checklist

42. Example of Items from a Likert Scale

43. Example of the Semantic Differential

44. Pictorial Attitude Scale for Use with Young Children

45. Sample Items from a Personality Inventory

46. Sample Items from an Achievement Test

47. Sample Item from an Aptitude Test

48. Sample Items from an Intelligence Test

49. Item Formats • Questions used in a subject-completed instrument can take many forms but are classified as either selection or supply items. • Examples of selection items are: • True-false items • Matching items • Multiple choice items • Interpretive exercises • Examples of supply items are: • Short answer items • Essay questions

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