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Chapter 13

Chapter 13. ECONOMIC AND INDUSTRY ANALYSIS. Chapter 13 Questions. What are the generic approaches to security analysis? What are the components of gross domestic product (GDP), and what can they tell us about industry prospects? How do international economic factors affect the U.S. economy?

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Chapter 13

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  2. Chapter 13 Questions • What are the generic approaches to security analysis? • What are the components of gross domestic product (GDP), and what can they tell us about industry prospects? • How do international economic factors affect the U.S. economy? • What are the major determinants of an economy’s long-term growth?

  3. Chapter 13 Questions • What are the primary influences affecting the short-term growth of an economy? • What indicators can be used to forecast economic variables? • What is expectational analysis? • How is the stock market related to economic activity?

  4. Chapter 13 Questions • Why must an analyst review both cyclical change and structural change when analyzing an industry? • What are the five basic competitive forces that determine the intensity of competition in an industry and, thus, its rate of return on capital? • What is the industrial life cycle and its stages?

  5. Economic Analysis and Efficient Markets • If markets are efficient, should we bother with analysis? • Yes! In fact, in an efficient market, likely the only way to outperform market averages is to forecast the future better than the consensus.

  6. Generic Approaches to Security Analysis • Two basic approaches: • Emphasize history, looking for trends • Focusing on the future • Still look at some historical information, but focus on looking forward to future trends • Top-down approach • Bottom-up approach

  7. Generic Approaches to Security Analysis • Top-Down Approach (Our focus) • Review the macro-economy • Analyze different industries and sectors • Determine buy/sell candidates • Market analysis • We can see the influence of changes in the overall economy on various classes of investments • Some investments do better than others before, during, and after recessions, for instance

  8. A Quick Review of Economic Concepts Domestic Economic Activity • Forecasting trends in major economic variables such as GDP, inflation, interest rates • GDP (Gross Domestic Product) components • Consumption spending • Investment spending • Government expenditures • Export and import activity

  9. A Quick Review of Economic Concepts Domestic Economic Activity • Domestic Economic Policies • Monetary policy • Policies of the Fed to control the money supply and thereby affect the overall economy • Open market operations • Discount rate changes • Reserve requirement changes • Fiscal policy • Government taxing and spending policies to influence the economy and pursue other public interests

  10. A Quick Review of Economic Concepts The Global Economy • Domestic firms impacted by global competition and a global business environment • The health of foreign economies impacts domestic firms who export • Trade impacted by exchange rates • Exchange rates impacted by relative interest rates, inflation rates, and real economic growth within a country and across countries

  11. Economic and Security Market Influences • As we forecast economic growth, a number of factors will influence our expectations • Influences on Long-term Expectations • Technology • Population • Labor force participation • Productivity • Resource availability • Incentives to expand

  12. Economic and Security Market Influences • Influences on Short-term Expectations • Influences caused by fluctuations in demand • Liquidity and bank lending • Monetary policy • Inflation • Interest rates • International influences • Consumer sentiment • Tax and other fiscal policy • Economic “shocks”

  13. Forecasting Tools • Searching for leading indicators that will provide signals of future economic directions • Inflation Indicators • Inflation at times is related to turning points in the business cycle • Inflation destroys the purchasing power of wealth • Federal Reserve actions indicate likely trends in inflation • Money supply and money growth rates relative to measures of economic growth • Commodity prices

  14. Forecasting Tools • Monetary Indicators • Impact both inflation and liquidity • Federal Reserve policy • Differences in Interest Rates • The Treasury yield curve can sometimes give indications about future economic growth • Cyclical Economic Indicators • Tracking “official” leading economic indicators • Econometric Modeling • Models developed to forecast economic variables

  15. Risks in Economic Forecasting • Dominated by “group think” • Always using consensus numbers ensures no better than average forecasts • Forecasts must be different (often) and yet still correct (usually) to create value • Many analysts are short-sighted • Lots of data can overwhelm us • Try to support a position • Over-reliance on expected “normal” changes without regard to the possibility of “shocks”

  16. Expectational Analysis Underlying concept: • Forecasting should take into account: • The current environment • Assumptions behind estimates • A procedure for monitoring both changes in the environment and violations of the assumptions being made

  17. Expectational Analysis In the top-down approach: • Analyze the current macro-economy and make assumptions about future monetary and fiscal policies. • Apply the analysis to sectors of the economy, identifying key assumptions made about the link between macroeconomic variables and sectors. • Apply to industries, linking macro and sector variables and monitoring values over time. • Apply to firms, noting Economy-Industry-Firm assumptions that affect recommendations.

  18. Industry Analysis • Many stock research firms organized analysts by industry grouping • Industry-specific expertise is valuable • Industry: a set of businesses that produce similar products used by customers for similar purposes • Sometimes useful to use various industry numerical classifications

  19. Links Between the Economy and Industries • Economic trends affect industry performance • Economic trends: • Cyclical changes • Ups and down of the business cycle • Different industries experience unique results depending on the point within the business cycle • May call for a “rotation” strategy • Structural changes • Changes in government institutions, regulatory environment, changes in technology, many more • Need to anticipate structural changes and analyze the likely impact on various industries

  20. The Stock Market and the Business Cycle Basic Industries Excel Consumer Staples Excel Consumer Durables Excel peak ECONOMIC CYCLE Capital Goods Excel trough Financial Stocks Excel

  21. Structural Influences • In addition to economic changes, various other trends also represent structural influences that will having varying effects across industries • Social Influences • Demographics: baby boom and beyond • Lifestyles: changing definition of “traditional” • Social values: environment, alcohol, tobacco • Technology • Politics and Regulation

  22. Competitive Structure of an Industry • Porter’s competitive forces are factors that determine a firm’s competitive environment • Rivalry among existing competitors • Both price-based and non-price-based competition • Threat of new entrants • Are there barriers to entry? • Threat of substitute products • Bargaining power of buyers • Volume discounts, quality demands • Bargaining power of suppliers • Can suppliers increase prices or reduce quality?

  23. Industry Life Cycle Another tool: 5-stage industry life cycle model: • Pioneering development After marketing or technological breakthrough • Rapidly accelerating industry growth Market develops, strong demand, new entrants • Mature industry growth Growth starts to flatten • Stabilization and market maturity Growth matches industry growth • Deceleration of growth and decline Declining profits, some losses, exit from industry

  24. Sources of Industry Information • Standard & Poor’s Industry Survey • Covers over 50 major industries • Standard & Poor’s Analysts Handbook • Contains financial data • Value Line Industry Survey • Divides firms into industry groups • Individual Investigation • Read annual reports, industry publications • Collect other relevant data from SEC filings, published information • Field interviews

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