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2.1

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2.1

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  1. 2.1 The Ottoman Empire

  2. Ottomans take control • Turks saw themselves as ghazis – warriors for Islam • Osman = most successful ghazi – followers called Ottomans • Ottoman army uses guns & cannons to replace archers – very effective

  3. Ottomans take control • Orkhan I (son of Osman) declares himself sultan • Sultan means “overlord” • Ottomans wise rulers • Local officials ruled lands • Non-muslims not required to serve in army – must pay tax to be excused

  4. Timur the Lame • Timur the Lame fights the Ottomans and burns Baghdad to the ground • Briefly halts the expansion of the Ottoman Empire

  5. Mehmed II • Mehmed II wins Constantinople • Constantinople controls access between Mediterranean Sea and Black Sea • Mehmed II moves ships over dry land to attack Constantinople • Opens city to Jews, Christians & Muslims • Changes city name to Istanbul

  6. Selim the Grim • Mehmed’s grandson defeats Safavids • Expands empire through Egypt and northern Africa • Expands empire along Red Sea

  7. Suleyman the Lawgiver • Selim’s son • Expands Ottoman Empire to greatest heights • Lybia • Hungary • Austria • Controls trade route to Africa • Only Charles V rivals him in power

  8. Suleyman the Lawgiver • Enacts structured laws for both criminal and civil cases • Limits taxes • Devshirme system • Boys of conquered lands required to serve in army • Janissaries = soldiers loyal to sultan only • Ottoman army well trained & educated

  9. Suleyman the Lawgiver • Allows freedom of religion in empire called millets • Millets allowed to follow own religious laws and practices • Representative of Millet reports to sultan • Keeps conflict between religions to a minimum

  10. Suleyman the Lawgiver • Kills his son that is best suited to rule • Doesn’t want son to kill him and take over • Second son goes into exile • Weak son takes over • Sets precident for future sultans • Kill your rivals, even if they are family • Brings down empire