Moths & Butterflies A Pathfinder Honor
Antennae - paired appendages connected to the front-most segments of an insect. Antennae are jointed, at least at the base, and generally extend forward from the head. They are sensory organs- sensing touch, air motion, heat, vibration (sound), and especially smell or taste.
Cocoon- cocoon is a casing spun of silk as a protective covering for the pupa.
Pupa - A pupa is the life stage of some insects undergoing transformation.
Larva - a juvenile form an insect that is undergoing metamorphosis. The larva can look completely different from the adult form, for example, a caterpillar differs from a butterfly. Larvae often have special (larval) organs which do not occur in the adult form.
Chrysalis - A chrysalis or nympha is the pupal stage of butterflies. Chrysalidsare often showy and are formed in the open. Most are attached to a surface by a Velcro-like arrangement of a silken pad spun by the caterpillar and a set of hooks at the tip of the pupalabdomen.
Antennae / Feelers Moths Butterflies thin slender filamentous antennae which are club shaped at the end. • have comb-like or feathery antennae, or filamentous and unclubbed.
Pupae Moths Butterflies form an exposed pupa which is also termed as a chrysalis. • spin a cocoon made of silk within which they metamorphose into the pupal stage.
Coloration of Wings Moths Butterflies have bright colors on their wings. A few butterflies are also plain-colored, like the Cabbage White butterfly. • Nocturnal moths are usually plain brown, grey, white or black and often with obscuring patterns of zigzags or swirls which help camouflage them as they rest during the day. • Many day-flying moths are brightly-colored, particularly if they are toxic.
Time of Activity Moths Butterflies are diurnal – both day and night activity • are nocturnal – night activity • There are however exceptions, including the diurnal Gypsy moth and the spectacular "Uraniidae" or Sunset moths
Resting Posture Moths Butterflies frequently fold their wings above their backs when they are perched although they will occasionally "bask" with their wings spread for short periods. • usually rest with their wings spread out to their sides.
3. Identify and describe some moths and/or butterflies by their cocoons.
4. What causes colored powder to come off on your hands when you handle the wings of a butterfly or moth?
This powder is made from tiny scales which cover the butterfly's wings. These scales give the wings their color, as the membrane beneath the scales is nearly transparent. The scales detach when contacted by a finger, much as the skin on a person's knee is abraded when it contacts a sidewalk.
5. Name some harmful tree moths and harmful house moths. Tell during what stage of their lives they each do their damage.
Gypsy Moth The gypsy moth was introduced into the United States in 1868 by a French scientist. It is now one of the most notorious pests of hardwood trees in the Eastern United States. Gypsy moths eat only during their larval stage.
Tent Caterpillar Species occur in North America, Mexico, and Eurasia. Twenty-six species have been described, six of which occur in North America. Caterpillars build a single large tent which is typically occupied through the whole of the larval stage.
Lesser Wax Moth Wax moths were first seen in North America in 1806. People believe they came over with honeybees from Europe.. The larvae are the only ones that eat, the adults will not eat.
Codling Moth Coddling moths are known as an agricultural pest, their larva being the common apple worm or maggot. It is native to Europe and was introduced to North America, where it has become one of the regular pests of apple orchards.
Clothing Moth Like most moth caterpillars, it can (and will) derive nourishment not only from clothing but also from many other sources. Eggs hatch into larvae, which then begin to feed. Once they get their fill, they pupate and undergo metamorphosis to emerge as adults.
White Shouldered Moth The White Shouldered House Moth is a very common moth and occurs regularly inside buildings, and being continuously-brooded, can be found at any time of year, mainly found indoors via open doors, windows etc. It is a widely distributed species whose larvae infest stored grain
6. What famous butterfly follows the birds southward every winter and comes northward in the spring ?
Monarch Butterfly • Monarch butterflies are especially noted for their lengthy annual migration. They make massive southward migrations starting in August until the first frost. A northward migration takes place in the spring. Female Monarchs deposit eggs for the next generation during these migrations. By the end of October, they reach their overwintering grounds. How the species manages to return to the same overwintering spots over a gap of several generations is still a subject of research; the flight patterns appear to be inherited, based on a combination of circadian rhythm and the position of the sun in the sky.
7. Describe the life cycle of a butterfly or moth. What lesson can be learned in connection with the resurrection of the righteous.
Butterflies and moths are notable for their unusual life cycle with a larval caterpillar stage, an inactive pupal stage, and a spectacular metamorphosis into a familiar and colorful winged adult form. • Unlike many insects, butterflies do not experience a nymph period, but instead go through a pupal stage which lies between the larva and the adult stage. The four stages of a butterfly's life cycle are…..
Stage 1 - Egg • Butterfly eggs are fixed to a leaf with a special glue which hardens rapidly. As it hardens it contracts, deforming the shape of the egg. Eggs are usually laid on plants. Each species of butterfly has its own host plant range and while some species of butterfly are restricted to just one species of plant, others use a range of plant species, often including members of a common family.
Stage 2 - Caterpillar • Larvae, or caterpillars, are multi-legged eating machines. They consume plant leaves and spend practically all of their time in search of food. Caterpillars mature through a series of stages, called instars. At the end of each instar, the larva moults the old cuticle, and the new cuticle rapidly hardens and pigments. Development of butterfly wing patterns begins by the last larval instar.
Stage 3 - Pupa • When the larva is fully grown, hormones are produced. At this point the larva stops feeding and begins "wandering" in the quest of a suitable pupation site, often the underside of a leaf. The larva transforms into a pupa (or chrysalis) by anchoring itself to a substrate and molting for the last time. The chrysalis is usually incapable of movement, although some species can rapidly move the abdominal segments or produce sounds to scare potential predators.
Stage 4 - Imago • the adult, sexually mature, stage of the insect is known as the imago. After it emerges from its pupal stage, a butterfly cannot fly until the wings are unfolded. A newly-emerged butterfly needs to spend some time inflating its wings with blood and letting them dry, during which time it is extremely vulnerable to predators. Some butterflies' wings may take up to three hours to dry while others take about one hour.
Resurrection • The life cycle of the butterfly has parallels to the life cycle of a Christian. During the larval stage, a butterfly lacks the beauty of an adult. It spends all of its time feeding itself, often causing major damage to plants. This stage of a butterfly's life can be likened to the unrighteous state of man, in that it is unlovely and often ignorant of the damage it causes. • Eventually, the caterpillar pupates. This stage is parallel to death. • While inside its chrysalis, the butterfly is transformed. This is not something it is conscious of doing. At the resurrection of the righteous, the Christian will also transformed by Christ into a new person, free from all defects. Gone are the selfish desires and the ugliness. It is a beautiful creature free from sin.
8. Identify and describe 25 species of moths and butterflies. Follow the directions on the following slides to complete this requirement.
American Snout Butterfly • The American Snout (Libytheanacarinenta) is a butterfly that has long labial palps (mustache-like scaly mouthparts on either side of the proboscis) that look like a long snout. The butterfly has a 1 3/8 - 2 inch (3.5 - 5 cm) wingspan. The front pair of legs on the male (but not the female) are reduced in size. Eggs are laid in groups on the hackberry plant. The caterpillar eats hackberry (celtis); the adult sips nectar of the flowers from asters, dogbane, dogwood, goldenrod, sweet pepperbush, and more. Adult American Snout butterflies look like dead leaves. They sometimes go on long migrations. They are brush-footed butterflies (Family Libytheidae).
Blue Morpho Butterfly • The Blue Morpho butterfly (Morphomenelaus) is a species of neotropical butterfly that has iridescent blue wings (the females are are not as brilliantly colored as the males and have a brown edge with white spots surrounding the iridescent blue area). The undersides (visible when the butterfly is resting) are brown with bronze-colored eyespots. Adults drink the juices of rotting fruit. The caterpillar of the Blue Morpho is red-brown with bright patches of lime-green on the back, and it eats the plant Erythroxylumpilchrum nocturnally (at night). Blue Morphos live in rainforests from Brazil to Venezuela. Blue Morphos belong to the Family Nymphalidae, Genus Morpho, and species menelaus.
Garden Tiger Moth • The Garden Tiger (Arctiacaja), also known as the Great Tiger Moth, is a common moth that is has a 1.8-2.8 inch (4.5-7 cm) wingspan. Its caterpillar, the black woolly bear, has long black hairs on top and rust-colored hairs on the underside. It is found in Europe and Asia in temperate regions, and less frequently in the Canada and Northern USA. Family Arctiidae.
Goliath Birdwing Butterfly • The Goliath Birdwing (Ornithoptera goliath) is the second-largest butterfly in the world. This brightly-colored butterfly is poisonous and has a wingspan up to 11 inches (28 cm) wide. It has black, yellow and green wings and a yellow and black body. This butterfly in found in tropical forests in Indonesia. Family Papilionidae.
Milbert’s Tortoiseshell • Milbert's tortoiseshell (Nymphalismilberti) is a small butterfly with a squared-off fore-wing. The wingspan is 1.6 - 2.5 inches (4.2 - 6.3 cm). It lives in North America from southern Alaska down to Mexico. Huge batches of eggs (up to 900) are laid on nettles. The caterpillar eats nettles; the adult feeds on flowers (thistles, goldenrods, and lilacs), sap and rotting fruit.
Painted Lady Butterfly • Vanessa cardui is a widespread butterfly in temperate and some tropical areas. It also known as the thistle butterfly and the cosmopolitan. The Painted Lady has a 2 - 2 7/8 inches (5.1 - 7.3 cm) wingspan. Adults sip thistle nectar and some hibernate. The life cycle begins with tiny, pale green eggs. The yellow-striped, brown-green spiny caterpillar builds a silky, webbed nest, usually in thistle. Family: Nymphalidae
Peacock Butterfly • The peacock butterfly (Inachisio) is a common butterfly from temperate parts of Europe (including Britain) and Asia. This butterfly makes a hissing sound when it is alarmed (usually upon seeing a bird); it makes the sound by rubbing its wings together. The wings are brownish-purple with a bright eyespot on each wing (the wings look a bit like an owl's face). The undersides of the wings are mottled grayish-brown. The larval host plant is the stinging nettle; the caterpillar is black with spines. Classification: Family Nymphalidae (brush-footed butterflies), genus Inachis, species I. io.
Postman Butterfly • Heliconiusmelpomene is a poisonous butterfly from neotropical habitats in Central America to Brazil. This butterfly has long antenna, and wings that are brown with orange spots. They have a wingspan of 2.5 to 3.25 inches (6 to 8 cm). The caterpillars eat passion vines (Passiflora). Family: Nymphalidae, genus Heliconius, species H. melpomene.
Queen Alexandra’s Birdwing • Queen Alexandra's Birdwing is the biggest butterfly in the world, with a wingspan up to 1 ft (30 cm) wide. The female is larger than the male and is brown with cream spots; the male is brown with blue and green markings and has a bright yellow abdomen. The caterpillar is black with red tentacles and has a cream-colored spot in the middle of its body. This rare butterfly is found in the lowland forests of northern Papua New Guinea (east of the Owen Stanley Mountains).
Red Admiral • The Red Admiral (Vanessa atalanta) is a common migratory butterfly found in marshy north temperate regions of Asia, Europe and North America. It is a fast flier. Its caterpillar lives only on nettles. Classification: Family Nymphalidae.