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What tools do historians use?

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  1. What tools do historians use? • Primary Sources • Diaries • Oral Accounts • Photographs • Maps, Art, Drawings • Autobiographies • Secondary Sources • Textbooks • Library books • Biographies

  2. Chapter One: “The Peopling of the World” • Human Origins In Africa A. Understanding Important Terms in the Science of searching for Human Origins 1. prehistory – the time before humans began recording their events 2. archaeologists – scientists who learn about early humans by excavating and studying the traces of early human settlements. • Please note: Archaeologists don’t study the human • skeletal remains, • they study the remains humans left behind – • their settlements, their objects. • ology • Archae- Can you break the word down? = the study of = old things Careers In Social Studies PP Design of T. Loessin; Akins H.S.

  3. Chapter One: “The Peopling of the World” • Human Origins In Africa A. Understanding Important Terms in the Science of searching for Human Origins 1. prehistory – the time before humans began recording their events 2. archaeologists – scientists who learn about early humans by excavating and studying the traces of early human settlements. • Please note: Archaeologists don’t study the human • skeletal remains, • they study the remains humans left behind – • their settlements, their objects. • ology= the study of • Archae= old things Mary Leakey 1913-1996 was one of the world's most famous hunters of early human fossils, credited with many discoveries that have changed the way scientists view human evolution. She is considered the preeminent contributor to the field of human origins. The Leakey Family Famous Archaeologists Mary’s son, Richard Leakey Mary’s daughter Meave Leakey recently impressed the world with her 1999 discovery of a 3.5 million-year-old skull.

  4. Chapter One: “The Peopling of the World” • Human Origins In Africa A. Understanding Important Terms in the Science of searching for Human Origins 1. prehistory – the time before humans began recording their events 2. archaeologists – scientists who learn about early humans by excavating and studying the traces of early human settlements. • Please note: Archaeologists don’t study the human • skeletal remains, • they studythe remains humans left behind – • their settlements, their objects. • ology= the study of • Archae= old things PP Design of T. Loessin; Akins H.S.

  5. Chapter One: “The Peopling of the World” • Human Origins In Africa A. Understanding Important Terms in the Science of searching for Human Origins 1. prehistory – before human’s began recording past events 2. archaeologists – scientists who learn about early humans by excavating and studying the traces of early human settlements. • Please note: Archaeologists don’t study the human • skeletal remains, • they studythe remains humans left behind – • their settlements, their objects. • ology= the study of • Archae= old things 3. artifacts – remains such as tools, jewelry, and other human-made objects. PP Design of T. Loessin; Akins H.S.

  6. Chapter One: “The Peopling of the World” • Human Origins In Africa A. Understanding Important Terms in the Science of searching for Human Origins 1. prehistory – before human’s began recording past events 2. archaeologists – scientists who learn about early humans by excavating and studying the traces of early settlements. 3. artifacts – remains such as tools, jewelry, and other human-made objects. 4. anthropologists – scientists who study the cultural behaviors of humankind. Careers In Social Studies -ology = Anthro- = the study of man • Anthropologyhas many branches of study. • physical anthropology,also known as biological anthropology, studies primate behavior, human • evolution, and population genetics. • cultural anthropology,also known as social anthropology, studies the social networks formed by our • ancestors, their social behaviors, kinship patterns, politics, beliefs, patterns in production and • consumption, and other ways they expressed their culture. • linguistic anthropologystudies variation in human languages across time and geographic regions, • the uses of language, and the relationship between language and culture. • - forensic anthropologyanalyzes skeletal remains in to determine how people might have lived or died. PP Design of T. Loessin; Akins H.S.

  7. Chapter One: “The Peopling of the World” • Human Origins In Africa A. Understanding Important Terms in the Science of searching for Human Origins 1. prehistory – before human’s began recording past events 2. archaeologists – scientists who learn about early humans by excavating and studying the traces of early settlements. 3. artifacts – remains such as tools, jewelry, and other human-made objects. 4. anthropologists – scientists who study the cultural behaviors of humankind. 5. culture – a people’s unique way of life. Forms of Expression Art / Music Relationships Family / social life CULTURE Forms of Communication Language / Symbols Rituals Customs / Traditions / Beliefs PP Design of T. Loessin; Akins H.S.

  8. Chapter One: “The Peopling of the World” • Human Origins In Africa A. Understanding Important Terms in the Science of searching for Human Origins 1. prehistory – before human’s began recording past events 2. archaeologists – scientists who learn about early humans by excavating and studying the traces of early settlements. 3. artifacts – remains such as tools, jewelry, and other human-made objects. 4. anthropologists – scientists who study the cultural behaviors of humankind. 5. culture – a people’s unique way of life. 6. paleontologist – scientists who study how life developed on earth based on studies of fossils. Careers In Social Studies -ology= the study of Paleo-= old period “Poop, anyone?” It’s not always fossilized bones! Some of you may not be cut out for this vocation! Besides bones, one of the things paleontologists examine quite often is ….well, poop! That’s right, fossilized feces (coprolites) can be quite revealing about our ancestor’s diet and eating habits, what chemical elements they may have been exposed to, their health, diseases, and life spans. PP Design of T. Loessin; Akins H.S.

  9. Chapter One: “The Peopling of the World” I. Human Origins in Africa (continued) B. Discovery of early hominids 1. hominids – humans and our human-like ancestors that walked upright. The scientific evidence! All of the oldest hominid fossils – those dating back farther than 3 million years – have been found in only one place on earth… the fossil-rich region known as the Great Rift Valley of Africa. Here is where man began. How do we know all Humans originated in Africa? Check out these websites guaranteed to “wow” you! http://www.archaeologyinfo.com - Click on “Human Ancestry” amazing graphics and interactive opportunities for ya! http://www.becominghuman.org- the official website of archaeologist Donald Johanson and his Institute of Human Origins. Both sites do a great job of explaining what we now know about humankind’s evolution. PP Design of T. Loessin; Akins H.S.

  10. Populating the Planet Human Beings Almost Everywhere 200,000 – 10,000 BCE

  11. When did we appear?

  12. Creation Myths Mesopotamia Aborigenes Indian Chinese Native American Hebrew Darwinian

  13. What happened before humans developed? • The Universe popped up 13 billion years ago. (That’s where you are, right?) • Stars and Galaxies popped up from about 12 billion years ago. • Our Sun and Earth popped up about 4.6 billion years ago. • Life popped up on Earth about 3.8 billion years ago. Big Bang!

  14. What happened before humans developed? • Complicated life-forms showed up after about 600 million years. • Some organisms got onto the land from about 400 million years ago. • Dinosaurs ruled the earth until about 67 million years ago. • Then our hominid ancestors showed up.

  15. The Stone Age Stone Age split into three distinct periods: • Paleolithic (Old Stone) Age – roughly 2 million years ago until 12,000 B.C.E. • Mesolithic (Middle Stone) Age – about 12,000 to 8,000 B.C.E. • Neolithic (New Stone) Age – about 8,000 to 3,000 B.C.E.

  16. 10k years ago Today 2.5 million years ago The Paleolithic Age is the era that covers the period from 2.5 million yrs ago to 10,000 years ago. It was fraught with change. Ice Age; Old Stone Age; Paleolithic Age 16

  17. The First Humans Theories on prehistory and early man constantly change as new evidence comes to light. - Louis Leakey, British paleoanthropologist

  18. Early Discoveries

  19. Stages of Early Human Development • Australopithecus – “southern ape” • Homo Habilis – • 3. Homo Erectus – “upright man” • 4. Homo Sapiens – “wise man” • -Neanderthal Man • -Homo Sapiens Sapiens – “wise, • wise man” – US! Paleolithic Age:( Old Stone Age ) 2,500,000 BCE to 8,000 BCE

  20. The Paleolithic Age “Paleolithic”--> “Old Stone” Age 2,500,000 BCE – 10,000 BCE Made simple tools NOMADIC (moving from place to place) hunting (men) & gathering (women) Travelled in small groups based on bonds of kinship

  21. Stage 1 4,000,000 BCE – 1,000,000 BCE Locking knee joint • Hominids--> any member of the family of two-legged primates that includes all humans. • Australopithecines one of the earliest human ancestors (hominids) • An Apposable Thumb

  22. AP Info AP Info Dinosaurs Disappear First Hominids Australopithecines First Hominids Scale of Life after the Dinosaurs 4 – 1.5m yrs ago 7m yrs ago Today Today 250k yrs 67m yrs ago The Missing Link? Donald Johanson 7m yrs ago

  23. Why this name? “Homo-” = man “Habilis” = ability Because this is the first of our human ancestors believed to have the “ability” to make stone tools. Stage 2 HOMO HABILIS2.4 to 1.4 million years ago • ( “Man of Skills” ) • Found in East Africa • created stone tools Early Homo Habilis tools – scrapers, bone points, etc.

  24. Stage 3 1,6000,000 BCE – 30,000 BCE • HOMO ERECTUS ( “Upright Human Being” ) • BIPEDALISM • Larger and more varied tools --> primitive technology • First hominid to migrate and leave Africa for Europe and Asia. • First to use fire ( 500,000 BCE )

  25. Big Eras3-9 Brain Development Big Era 1 Big Era 2 27k 250k yrs ago 1.8 mil. yrs ago 500k – 200k yrs ago 10k Today How, when, and where did we become human? • One of our close ancestors, Homo erectus. • Homo erectus was one of the hominid groups that was developing increasingly large brains in both Africa and Asia between about 500,000 and 200,000 years ago. This is a reconstructed Homo erectus skull, found in northern China. It dates to some time after 1.6 million years ago. Homo erectus

  26. Big Eras3-9 Big Era 1 Big Era 2 27k 200k yrs ago 1.8 mil. yrs ago 10k Today Homo erectus was a traveler! Homo erectus began migrating to southerly parts of Eurasia sometime after about 1.8 million years ago. Homo erectus

  27. Differing Human Migration Theories Are we all Africans “under the skin”????

  28. Stage 4 200,000 BCE – 10,000 BCE HOMO SAPIENS( “Wise Human Being” ) Neanderthals( 200,000 BCE – 30,000 BCE ) Cro-Magnons( 40,000 BCE – 10,000 BCE )

  29. By 200,000 years ago, people whose skeletons were like those of Homo sapiens were already living in Africa. Between that time and about 100,000 years ago, people who were both anatomically and genetically “like us” emerged in eastern and southern Africa. Human Origins: Homo sapiens in Africa Human Origins: Homo sapiens in Africa S.W. Asia 100k yrs ago 200k yrs ago 200k yrs ago Homo sapiens(that’s us!) evolved from Homo erectus This is a reconstructed Homo sapiens skull, found in Israel. It has been dated to about 90,000 years ago. Big Eras3-9 Big Era 1 Big Era 2 Today 10k years ago

  30. Stage 4 NEANDERTHALS: • Neander Valley, Germany (1856) • First humans to bury their dead. • Made clothes from animal skins. • Lived in caves and tents. • Evidence leads historians to believe Neaderthals tried to control and explain the world

  31. Stage 4 NEANDERTHALS Early Hut/Tent

  32. Stage 4 CRO-MAGNONs: • Homo sapiens sapiens( “Wise, wise human” ) • By 30,000 BCE they replaced Neanderthals. WHY???

  33. Homo Sapien Cro-Magnon man identical to modern humans superior hunters advanced skills in spoken language & art! They hunted mainly with spears, (bow and arrows came much later). Cro Magnon made tools from blades of Flint stone, used for preparing animal skins. They made innovations to pierced shells, tooth and bone pendants used for body ornamentation. Their art included figurines of Venus, small statuettes of bone, and they made outline cave wall drawings of woolly mammoths and other animals. Used mammoth fur and bones to construct dwellings and may have hunted the mammoth into extinction.

  34. CHAPTER 1: Early Human Origins to The Neotlithic Revolution to the Birth of Civilization Millions of years ago 3 2 1 BC 0 AD Australopithecine Afarensis Homo Sapiens Homo Erectus Australopithecine Africanus “Lucy” Homo Habilis PP Design of T. Loessin; Akins H.S.

  35. MAP OF ICE AGES

  36. Homo sapiens traveled even further than Homo erectus. From their African homeland, Homo sapiens groups migrated to… …Where? See the Map!

  37. Siberia 40,000 years ago Europe 40,000 years ago North America 12,000-30,000 years ago Oceania 1600 B.C.E.-500 C.E. Southwest Asia 100,000 years ago Australia as many as 60,000 years ago Chile 12,000-13 ,000 years ago Human Origins 200,000-250,000 years ago Possible coastal routes of human migration Possible landward routes of human migration Migrations in Oceania Migrations of Homo sapiens

  38. How did geography shape the migration?

  39. How did the Austronesian migration differ from other early patterns of human movement?

  40. Map Activity

  41. Were other surviving hominids changing in the same way as Homo sapiens? • By the time humans appeared, our closest living relatives were probably the hominids known as “Neandertals” (or, “Neanderthals”). • When Homo sapiens groups arrived in western Asia and Europe, Neandertals were already there. By 100,000 years ago Neandertals were living from Spain to Inner Eurasia. • They had a long record of living successfully in both warm and cold environments. But they disappeared from the record about 28,000 years ago.

  42. Approximate geographical range of Neandertals, 100,000-28,000 years ago Approximate geographical range of Homo sapiens by 28,000 years ago Did Homo sapiens meet Neandertals?

  43. Did Homo Sapiens meet Homo Erectus? • Members of the two species may have met in Southeast Asia. • The last physical traces of Homo erectus, dating to about 28,000 years ago, were discovered in Java. By that time Homo sapiens was already living in that region. Range of last surviving Homo erectus

  44. Homo sapiens and other species • We’re not sure what might have happened if Homo sapiens met Neandertals or Homo erectus, but we do know that these two hominid species died out. • And so did many other large animals, called megafauna, which once roamed the earth. • What might these extinctions tell us about our own species?

  45. What do you think might have happened when Homo sapiens met Neandertals or Homo erectus? • Would they have: • Learned from each other? • Fought? • Traded? • Eaten each other? • Mated?

  46. Before you answer that question, let’s review … • Humans appeared, and they started TALKING! • Therefore, they could share new ideas and build up a store of ideas – what we call “culture.” • They learned to live in many different environments. • And they migrated to all the world’s major landmasses and many of its islands, big and small.