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Reassessing Main Stakeholders in LSP – Focusing on the Lecturer

Reassessing Main Stakeholders in LSP – Focusing on the Lecturer. Dr. Nadežda Stojković , University of Niš , Serbia Dr. Somali Gupta, V.Y.T.P.G. Autonomous College Durg , Chhattisgarh, India. Focal points. Reexamining who the main stakeholders in LSP are

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Reassessing Main Stakeholders in LSP – Focusing on the Lecturer

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  1. Reassessing Main Stakeholders in LSP – Focusing on the Lecturer Dr. NadeždaStojković, University of Niš, Serbia Dr. Somali Gupta, V.Y.T.P.G. Autonomous College Durg, Chhattisgarh, India

  2. Focal points • Reexamining who the main stakeholders in LSP are • Claim that the LSP lecturer is unjustifiably not in the fore • Advocating for a change from two perspectives: • Position of LSP lecturers within academia; • Factors impacting the efficacy of the LSP Lecturers.

  3. LSP learners population • Adult population of learners • In academia and various forms of life long learning • Have already mastered general foreign language • Need further instruction in foreign language for prospective jobs

  4. LSP as a lingua franca • Expedient use of LSP by adult population • Used for business and science – driving forces of contemporary world • Widdowson (1994) claims it is ESP that is lingua franca • Of such presence and relevance – yet unacknowledged

  5. Lsp learners • Benefits of LSP for the learners: • Minute care in tailoring the course content and methodology according to the group/individual learner • Specifics of the projected/present situational linguistic requirements may be idiosyncratic even

  6. Implications for the lecturer • To cater for this, the lecturer needs to: • Provide corresponding teaching and learning material • Apply appropriate teaching methodology • Prove their job is relevant and needed!?

  7. Lsp Lecturer’s position • In order to answer professional demands: • Adequate training in LSP teaching theory and practice needed; • Further constant professional development required, e.g. teacher trainings, etc;

  8. instead • Instead, paradoxically, still the concept of teacher self-development (Richards 1998: xiv) • (Non)availability of LSP teacher training programs in academia

  9. Academia • Situation at philology departments: courses preparing students for LSP positions? • In Europe three institutions: • MykolasRomeris University, Vilnius, Lithuania • University of Durham, UK • Stockholm University, Sweden

  10. Publishing houses • LSP (though mostly ESP) teaching material present • Yet, of a general nature, bordering with general education • On an intermediate level? • LSP textbooks not profitable

  11. Platforms for exchange • Journals and conferences • Move towards model of hard sciences

  12. Feasible solution • Academia

  13. The roles and ResponSibilities • Primary : Teach, guide, instruct, facilitate. • Secondary: Support & Motivate to ensure that students are independent, confident, stable individuals ready to face life in a globalised world.

  14. Teacher Efficacy • When a teacher believes in his own ability to guide their students to success. • The factors that impact efficacy are • Alignment • Inclusivity • Organization • Fulfilment of Needs and Motivation

  15. Teacher Efficacy Beliefs • efficacy in student engagement (the beliefs about the capability to motivate students, foster creativity, and handle difficult students) • efficacy in classroom management (the beliefs about controlling disruptive behaviors, making students follow the rules, and making the activities performed smoothly) • and efficacy in instructional strategies (the beliefs about instructional behaviors such as responding to student questions, asking good questions, and adjusting the lessons to the level of students). • All three elements of teacher efficacy are seen to be representative of teachers’ practices as well as teaching environment.

  16. In addition to the knowledge of content and pedagogy, teachers’ beliefs about their skills or capabilities have been thought to be the attributes effective in teaching because they influence “the way they learn to teach, and their perceptions, judgments, decision- making and actions in the classroom” Therefore, teacher efficacy beliefs are considered to be “stronger indicators for predicting their teaching behaviors”.

  17. In this sense, certain studies have already found that more efficacious teachers are able to cope with difficult situations easily, are good at planning and organization, use instructional strategies more effectively, sustain student engagement and motivation, maintain the continuity of the task, are good at teaching particular subjects, are better in classroom management, and are more open to innovations.

  18. SELF-AWARENESS • High on task awareness • High on role awareness • Low on Self Awareness

  19. Teacher burnout • Physical exhaustion. • Lack of motivation to teach. • Lack of empathy

  20. Needs • To be able to influence the students (Control) • To be included by the students on the classroom.(Inclusion) • To be loved by the students.(Affection)

  21. The Symbolic space • According to Bourdieu we don’t have a choice of playing or not playing the symbolic game on the market of linguist exchanges. As Social actors we are imbricated in a hierarchical symbolic order with which we are complicit and that changes according to time and place. (Krasmch 2016)

  22. The symbolic space contains the whole dynamics that occurs in the classrooms between the students and the teachers , in the transactions that happen, in the silences(no response) that emerge, and in the needs that are denied or not recognised.

  23. Fundamental Interpersonal Relations Orientation (FIRO) • The FIRO-B tool measures the interpersonal needs in three areas. For each of the three interpersonal needs—Inclusion, Control, and Affection—the FIRO-B instrument also provides a measure of how much each need is expressed or wanted by us.

  24. INCLUSION • Behaviour directed towards the satisfaction of the interpersonal need of inclusion, the need to maintain and establish a satisfactory relation with people with regards to association. • Inclusion connotes interaction with people, attention, acknowledgement being known, prominence, recognition, prestige, individuality, understanding, interest, commitment and participation

  25. INCLUSION[ • Unlike affection it does not connote strong emotional attachment to people. • Unlike control the preoccupation is with prominence not dominance.

  26. CONTROL • Behaviour directed to satisfy the interpersonal need for control, the need to maintain a satisfactory relation with people with respect to power and authority (control). • It relates to making decisions, discipline, goal settings, dominance, guidance, giving directions, influencing, ruling, leading, antonyms to control would be rebellion, resistance, following, anarchy and submission.

  27. AFFECTION • Behaviour directed toward the satisfaction of interpersonal need for affection and love. It centers around feelings of warmth, love and emotional acceptance, friendship. • Lack of affection would mean cool emotionally distant, dislike and hate. • Affection involves sharing one’s inner anxieties, wishes and feelings.

  28. How are the needs reflected? • As Teachers we learn to deny these needs/ or not aware of the needs. • With no awareness or expression they build up as frustrations and result in the lack of motivation to teach.

  29. New methods of teacher training • Heightened self awareness leading to more empathy in classrooms. • Teaching is more than guided instructions.

  30. Only to have content knowledge and pedagogical skills are not enough for effective teaching, teachers also “need to be confident in their abilities to enact effective instructional practices that result in students’ learning, motivation, and other positive outcomes” (Duffin, French & Patrick, 2012, p.827). • … it is highly important to support teachers in the teacher education programs to have stronger and positive efficacy beliefs in order to produce effective, capable and motivated teachers (Pendergast, Garvis & Keogh, 2011).

  31. This is about how do we understand ourselves better. (Self Awareness) • How do we understand the classrooms better. • How do we become more effective in anything that we do. • How Human relationships tick. • Greater awareness regarding the classroom dynamics brings about options and possibilities of doing things differently.

  32. Thank You

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