Primate characteristics • Generalized diet and teeth
Primate characteristics • The senses and the brain: • Color vision (diurnal primates only)
Primate characteristics • The senses and the brain: • Stereoscopic vision (depth perception) • Eyes to the front • Visual information from each eye transmitted to visual centers in both hemispheres in the brain • Visual information processed by specialized brain structures
Primate characteristics • The senses and the brain: • Large and complex brains • Visual information processing • Large areas involved with the hand
Primate characteristics • Maturation, Learning and Behavior • Long gestation • Single births instead of litters • Delayed maturation • Tendency to live in mixed-age groups • Dependence on learned behavior
Primate Sociality • Theories: • Improved access to food • Protection from predators
Primate Sociality • Types of groups: • Multi-male/multi-female • Most common type. • Chimps and Bonobos usually live in mm/mf fission-fusion groups.
Primate Sociality • Types of groups: • Pair-bond • Examples: Gibbons and Siamangs, some monkeys
Primate Sociality • Types of groups: One-Male/Multi Female • Gorilla
Socioecology • The study of animals and their habitats that looks for patterns of relationship between the environment and social behavior.
Socioecology • Assumes that the various components of an environment have evolved together.
Socioecology • Food (amounts, qualities, distribution) • Distribution of water • Predators (distribution, types) • Distribution of sleeping sites • Activity patterns (nocturnal/diurnal) • Relationships with other species • Impact of human activities
Socioecology • Of the baboon… • (MM/MF) • Savanna • Predators can be common • Of the Slow Loris… • Solitary foraging • Insectivor • Slow moving
Sociobiology • The study of the relationship between behavior and natural selection. Sociobiological theory states that certain behaviors or behavioral pattern have been selected for because they increase reproductive success in individuals.
Sociobiology • Infanticide • K-selection (vs. r-selection) • Male / Female behaviors • Sexual dimorphism
Challenges to sociobiology • The lack of long-term data: • On demography • On social behavior • Resource distribution • Little data on relatedness through male line • How to assign reproductive costs and benefits to particular behaviors