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  1. A18 -What it is Tier III and What it is Not?Presenter: Don KincaidKey Words: Tier 3, Individual student, behavior support

  2. CALL FOR PAPERS OPENS JUNE 2019 Miami, FL Hyatt Regency Miami March 11-14, 2020 For more information, visit: conference.apbs.org

  3. Acknowledgments

  4. Why are we here today? • Nationally, there is a critical need to improve outcomes for students with the most severe and persistent learning and behavioral needs

  5. Goals for the day Explore common myths and misconceptions about Tier 3 Discuss important considerations to improve effective PBIS support at Tier 3 Learn more about Forum presentations that can help us understand and implement Tier 3 better.

  6. Multitiered System of Supports (MTSS) A few students will need intensive supports Intensive Tier 3 Some students will need targeted supports Targeted Tier 2 Universal Tier 1 All students receive access to quality core instruction

  7. Myth #1 • Tier 3 is equal to special education eligibility!

  8. Consideration #1 • Tier 3 includes ALL students who need additional support that is intensive. • It may be short term or unrelated to a diagnosis or eligibility determination. • ESE eligibility may be one way to PAY for such intervention supports. • There are Tier 3 students that are ESE and non-ESE.

  9. Myth #2 Tier 3 can only be provided by specialists and is often providing moreof the same core intervention but in greater doses.

  10. Consideration #2 Teaming is critical in Tier 3 Content specialists are important to develop technically adequate plans Representative school-based teams are more likely to develop and implement plans that are contextually relevant School-based teams that include content specialists are more likely to develop technically adequate plans that are also contextually relevant! (Benazzi, Horner, & Good, 2006)

  11. Consideration #2Teaming is critical in Tier 3 • Consider functions • Build capacity and expertise among schools • Provide advanced support for students or staff based on data • Monitor implementation and outcomes of school teams • Screen & identify students • Form student-specific teams • Support staff (training and coaching) • Monitor Tier 3 (fidelity and outcomes) for all students receiving Tier 3 • Conduct and inform diagnostic academic assessment and FBA • Develop and monitor intervention for student

  12. Myth vs Fact Misperceptions about appropriate roles and skills abound: • Assessments, data collections, intervention development should be done by competent personnel regardless of "label". • The teams "use" expertise as necessary to support the process. • Many integrated academic and behavioral support needs will require teacher leadership but many intensive supports may require outside assistance • All Tier 3 assessments and data collection must be done by a behavior analyst, teacher, etc.​ • The expert drives the process • Teachers must provide all of the T3 supports

  13. Myth #3 Conducting diagnostic or functional assessment always leads to high quality Tier 3 supports.

  14. “Teaching without assessment is like driving a car [at night] without headlights.” (Good, Harn, Kame'enui, Simmons, & Coyne, 2003) Diagnostic (academic and functional behavioral assessment) data are critical to guide intervention.

  15. Consideration #3Use Data to “Drive” Intervention • Too often we conduct assessments and then provide an intervention disregarding the results of the assessment. • It is critical to strategically link the assessment results to the individualized plan for the student with intensive needs.

  16. Consideration #3On-going Data Collection Also Needed • Using assessment data increases the probability of a high quality plan • Still need to monitor: • Implementation fidelity • Progress toward desired outcomes • Adjust plan based on data (if needed)

  17. Myth #4 Tier 3 behaviors are primarily externalizingbehaviors and rooted in the child. Tier 3 focuses on an intensity of need, not a type (or topography) of behavior

  18. Consideration #4Tier 3 Focuses on Intensity of Need Important Reminders About the Facts: • Always consider academic and/or behavioral needs • May be internalizing and/or externalizing behaviors • Tier 3 is not defined by one type or topography of behavior • May be special or general education • May address long-term or short term needs

  19. Myth #4 Revisited Tier 3 behaviors are primarily externalizingbehaviors and rooted in the child. Tier 3 focuses on an intensity of need, not a type (or topography) of behavior • Behaviors occur within a context (not within a child)

  20. Consideration #4Context Matters Focusing on “within child” behaviors leads to negative side effects such as: • Labeling with inflammatory words (e.g. Bully, dummy) • Focusing on “fixing” the child • “Coming Down” on kids • Relying on zero tolerance policies & emphasizing reactive or exclusionary discipline • “Remove the kid, remove the problem”

  21. Spotlight:Why Expulsion and/or Removal is Not Effective • Reduces student academic engaged time • Strong indicator a student will drop out of school (Achilles, et al, 2007; Cassidy & Jackson, 2005) • Does not appear to be a deterrent for future misconduct (Achilles, et al, 2007; Anderson & Kincaid, 2005) • Often used to provide relief to teachers and doesn‘t address issues that led to misbehavior (Morrison & Skiba, 2001) • Students removed are often those who academically need to be in school (Christle et al., 2004)

  22. Possible Solution(s):Double Down on Prevention • National Call for Action • Experts say (https://www.npr.org/sections/ed/2018/03/07/590877717/experts-say-here-s-how-to-prevent-the-next-school-shooting) • Don't harden schools • Increase social/emotional health • Public health model • Prevention, targeted support, emergency (intensive Tier 3 support)

  23. Myth #5 Tier 3 is always specificto a content area such as academics or behavior.

  24. Consideration #5 Always Consider Both Academics & Behavior in Tier 3 In Tier 3 – rare is the day academics and behavior operate in isolation Interventions should take into consideration the interaction of both academics and behavior

  25. Myth #6 All students who don't succeed at Tier 2 MUST move to Tier 3

  26. Consideration #6 Schools should have multiple Tier 2 interventions • Identify best match • Consider whether a student would benefit from more than one intervention Tier 2 interventions can be adapted • As many as 25% of students receiving Tier 2 interventions may be nonresponsive • These students may not have behavioral profiles that warrant more intensive intervention

  27. Adaptations to Tier 2 Interventions Adaptationsare modifications or changes to the standard protocol • Increase or decrease the dosage of intervention components  • Add supplemental supports or interventions • Modify the format of a core component Timing of adaptations • At onset • Due to non-responsiveness

  28. Concept of Adaptations

  29. Types of Adaptations

  30. Myth #7 Tier 3 data collection is difficult, if not impossible, to accomplish… especially with fidelity.

  31. Consideration #7 There are simple tools that allow you to monitor educators’ implementation (fidelity) and students’ progress toward goals (outcomes). You can start by looking for resources at the NCII Tools Charts

  32. Keep it simple… (dbr.education.uconn.edu) (Gessner, 1516 ) (e.g., Scott & Hirn, 2011)

  33. Myth #8 All staff should become experts in Tier 3 assessment, intervention, and implementation.

  34. Consideration #8 Everyone is an expert… Intervention Experts Education Experts Kid Experts …but they don’t all have to be Tier 3 experts.

  35. Education Experts Kid Experts Intervention Experts • Implement Tier 3 strategies • Collaborate to develop Tier 3 • Inform & support Tier 3 • Enhance communication with home to support Tier 2 • Enhance communication with school to support Tier 2 • Support education and kid experts in Tier 2 • Differentiate Tier 1 (classroom instruction and intervention) • Support Tier 1 (classroom instruction and intervention) • Support Tier 1 (classroom instruction and intervention) (Sugai, Dec 7, 2007)

  36. Myth #9 Most Tier 3 interventions are too complex and difficult to implement . We just need an easy menu of interventions to choose from.

  37. Consideration #9A It is critical that Tier 3 supports are based on data including functional behavior assessment and contextual fit. •Does the intervention address the “function(s)” of behavior? •Does the intervention fit the home, school, classroom and community contexts? Picking  one or more interventions from an array of options WITHOUT assessment data is unlikely to be successful.

  38. Consideration #9B Tier 3 interventions can be practical, individualized, effective and yet comprehensive if you attend to four areas: 1.   Antecedents – What happened before problem behavior that makes it more or less likely and allow you to “PREVENT” problem behavior from occurring. 2.  Behavior – Clearly define the problem behavior AND TEACH appropriate behavior to replace problem behavior – same reason (function). 3.  Consequences – REINFORCE appropriate behavior you want to see and decrease reinforcement for problem behavior. 4.  Lifestyle Context – Understanding how what you learn fits into the context of the student’s life, classroom, school, etc.  Using person-centered planning techniques to understand the student’s life goals, strengths, needs, support network, etc.

  39. Myth #10 Wraparound supports including the home and community are not the responsibility of the school.

  40. Consideration #10 We need to take shared responsibility for ensuring that all students will be successful • These are our students • Successful wraparound interventions will not only directly benefit the student but also can enhance our ability to be more effective as teachers for the student Sometimes schools are the best entity to lead wraparound process • May be most knowledgeable and have the most skills with the process

  41. Consideration #10 Effective problem-solving through the wraparound process necessitates the involvement of the student’s educators • Students spend a significant amount of time in school • Educators bring valuable information to the wraparound process regarding student’s strengths, weaknesses, current program/supports If we truly want to provide effective supports for our students with persistent and intensive needs, we need to work collaboratively with others inside and outside of the school system • More likely to develop an effective comprehensive support system with increased likelihood of implementation fidelity

  42. Myth #11: The Perfect System: • Tier 1 and Tier 2 MUST BE IN PLACE before we start Tier 3 supports AND • Tier 1 and 2 MUST BE FUNCTIONAL before we start Tier 3 supports

  43. Consideration #11Don’t let the perfect be the enemy of the good • Think of Tier 3 as an array of supports vs existing on a continuum • Effective Tier 3 supports match student needs. • Some students may need to go directly to Tier 3 supports.  • Some students may need a Tier 3 level of support for their entire educational experience.

  44. Spotlight:Systems Issues • Systems barriers cannot be allowedto impact access to needed intensive supports • School and district level teams focused on intervention implementation AND systems implementation ( leadership, teaming, problem-solving, coaching, etc.) are important We cannot allow the system to dictate the services and supports the student receives

  45. Spotlight:Solutions for the System Issue • Have one or more practices in place (e.g., core program, special education strategies) • Ensure use of effective, researched-based practices matched to student need • Develop systems to support the effective use of these practices

  46. Other Forum Sessions on Tier 3 • A19 - Basic Functional Behavior Assessment to Behavior Intervention Plan: Building School Capacity to Implement Function-based Support • B19 - Person-centered Planning for Better Tier III Outcomes • C16 - RENEW - A Tier III Intervention for High Schools: Data, Systems, Practices • C17 - Systems, Structures, & Coaching Practices to Ensure Effective, Feasible, & Sustainable Function-based Supports in Schools • C18 - Tier III Readiness: Considerations for Sustainable Implementation • D19 - Tier III Progress Monitoring: How Individualized Supports Can be Monitored Systematically, Efficiently, & Individually • E18 - The Prevent-Teach-Reinforce Functional Behavior Assessment-Behavior Intervention Plan Model for Middle & High School Students • E19 - Tier III Supports & Students with Disabilities: Practice & Policy Recommendations

  47. Questions or Comments?

  48. Contact Information • Don Kincaid • 813-974-7684 • kincaid@usf.edu