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Prostate Cancer

Prostate Cancer

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Prostate Cancer

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  1. Prostate Cancer

  2. What Is Prostate Cancer? • In American men, prostate cancer is the most common cancer and the second leading cause of cancer death. • The prostate gland is walnut-sized and is located in front of the rectum, behind the penis, and under the bladder. • Most prostate cancers grow very slowly, but when they spread, they can do so quickly. Prostate Cancer

  3. The American Cancer Society’s Estimates • In the United States during 2008: • 186,320 new cases of prostate cancer will be diagnosed. • 28,660 men will die of this disease. Prostate Cancer

  4. Who Is At Risk? • Three factors greatly influence the risk of developing prostate cancer: • 1. Being a man Only men develop prostate cancer, typically those ages 50 and older. • 2. Age More than 70% of prostate cancers are diagnosed in men over 65. • 3. Race African American men have the highest prostate cancer incidence rates in the world. The rates of prostate cancer death for African American men are more than twice the rates for White men. Prostate Cancer

  5. Other Risk Factors • About 5 to 10% of prostate cancers may be inherited. • Eating a high-fat diet—especially a diet high in saturated fat, found primarily in animal sources, such as red meat and dairy products—may play a part in causing prostate cancer. Prostate Cancer

  6. Detection Methods • Two tests are used to detect prostate cancer: • 1. Digital rectal exam (DRE) – A test in which the doctor feels for abnormal areas by inserting a lubricated, gloved finger in the rectum. • 2. Prostate-specific antigen (PSA) blood test – A test for a protein that increases in the blood of some men with prostate cancer. Prostate Cancer

  7. The American Cancer Society’s Recommendations • Beginning at age 50, men should talk with their doctors about yearly screening. • Men who are at high risk for prostate cancer (African Americans or men with a first-degree relative diagnosed with prostate cancer at a young age) should begin testing at age 45. Prostate Cancer

  8. Treatment • Treatment is most successful when prostate cancer is detected early. • Often two or more treatment methods are used. • Patients should thoroughly discuss treatment options with their doctors. Prostate Cancer

  9. Treatment • If prostate cancer is detected early, is slow growing, and is not causing symptoms, “watchful waiting” may be chosen initially, especially for older men. • Active treatment, which is started if the cancer begins to grow more quickly or symptoms appear, includes surgery, hormone therapy, chemotherapy, and radiation. Prostate Cancer

  10. Treatment Options • Surgery (radical) – Removal of the prostate, called prostatectomy, is the most commonly chosen surgical treatment. • Radiation therapy – Uses high-energy rays to shrink or kill cancer cells. • Chemotherapy – Uses anticancer drugs that attack cancer cells and normal cells. The drugs are usually given by injection or by mouth. • Hormone therapy – Treatment with hormones or drugs that interfere with hormone production or action, or the surgical removal of hormone producing glands. Prostate Cancer

  11. Symptoms • Most early cases of prostate cancer cause no symptoms, but some early signs may be: • Frequent urination, especially at night. • Difficulty starting urinationor inability to urinate. • Weak or painful urination. Prostate Cancer

  12. Survival Rates • 5-year localized survival rate is 100% • Localized cancer is cancer that, at the time of diagnosis, had not spread to additional sites within the body. Typically, the earlier a cancer is detected and diagnosed, the more successful the treatment, thus enhancing the survival rate. • The 5-year survival rate for early prostate cancer is very high (nearly 100%) with or without treatment. • Prostate cancer is less likely to be curable once it has spread; however, with annual screening, prostate cancer can be detected before this occurs. Prostate Cancer

  13. Survival Rates • 5-year overall survival rate is 99.4% • The 5-year survival rates represent persons who are living 5 years after diagnosis, whether disease-free, in remission, or under treatment. They do not imply that 5-year survivors have been permanently cured of cancer. Prostate Cancer

  14. How Will Cancer Affect Me And My Family? • From the time of diagnosis, everyone is affected in some way, even family and friends. • The American Cancer Society works to enhance aspects of life often challenged by this disease through: • Reducing the physical toll of cancer. • Reducing barriers to allow those affected to continue with their day-to-day lives. • Reducing the social and financial impact of cancer. • Preserving the spiritual well-being of those affected. Prostate Cancer

  15. Patient Concerns • Prostate cancer patients are often very concerned about the potential for incontinence and sexual dysfunction. • Other concerns include: • Fear of recurrence • Fatigue • Depression • Pain • Sleep difficulties • Changes in what they are able to do after treatment • Impact on finances and loved ones • Changes in physical appearance Prostate Cancer

  16. You Are Not Alone • In recent years, the quality of life for those who are living with cancer has received increased attention. • No one has to make the cancer journey alone. • The American Cancer Society provides sources of information and support to cancer patients, their families, and friends. These include access to secure and private online chats, message boards, and support groups. Prostate Cancer

  17. Connecting With Others • ACS Survivors NetworkSM is one source of support for people with cancer and their families and friends. This Network will help you find and talk to others who share your interests and experiences. • There are two ways to participate: 1. Visit our Internet site atwww.acscsn.org. 2. Call our toll-free number, 24 hours a day at 1–877–333–HOPE. Prostate Cancer

  18. American Cancer Society Resources • The American Cancer Society’s Man to Man program is designed to support men who are interested in learning more about how to prevent, detect, and treat prostate cancer. • The American Cancer Society also provides information on prostate cancer and other forms of cancer, as well as services to support cancer patients and their families. Prostate Cancer

  19. Hope For The Future • Researchers are investigating ways to reduce the risk of prostate cancer, including: • Foods, such as tomatoes and soybeans. • New drugs that block the effects of male hormones that may promote prostate cancer growth. • Vitamin E and selenium supplements. Prostate Cancer

  20. Hope For The Future • Scientists are also: • Testing vaccines for increasing the body’s immunity to prostate cancer cells. • Conducting genetic research seeking to identify men at highest risk so screening canbegin earlier or so treatments canbe designed to reverse changesthat lead to prostate cancer. Prostate Cancer

  21. The Bottom Line • Age is the main risk factor for prostate cancer, and early detection increases survival and treatment options. • All men 50 and older should talk to their doctors about having annual DRE and PSA tests to help find prostate cancer early. • Men with an abnormal test should discuss options with their doctor, especially since it is not clear whether all men need to be treated immediately. Prostate Cancer

  22. Contact The American Cancer Society • American Cancer Society programs and services are available 24 hours a day, 7 days a week. • To reach us: • Visit the American Cancer Society Internet site at www.cancer.org. • Call toll-free, 1–800–ACS–2345. Prostate Cancer

  23. Additional Resources • National Cancer InstituteCancer Information Service Telephone: 1–800–4–CANCER (toll free)Internet: www.nci.nih.gov • CaP Cure (Association for the Cure of Cancer of the Prostate)Telephone: 1–800–757–CURE (toll free) or 310–458–2873Internet: www.capcure.org • National Prostate Cancer CoalitionTelephone: 202–463–9455Internet: www.4npcc.org Prostate Cancer