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Prostate Cancer

Prostate Cancer

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Prostate Cancer

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  1. Prostate Cancer

  2. What is Cancer • Cancer occurs when cells in a part of the body begin to grow out of control. • Normal cells divide and grow in an orderly fashion, but cancer cells do not. • Cancer cells crowd out normal cells.

  3. What is Cancer • Sometimes cancer cells spread to other parts of the body through the blood or lymph system. • When cancer spreads to a new place in the body, it is still named after the part of the body where it started. If prostate cancer spreads to the bones, it is still called prostate cancer.

  4. Prostate Cancer Statistics • Most frequently diagnosed cancer in men. • Second leading cause of cancer death in men. • Most prostate cancers grow very slowly, but when they spread, they can do so quickly.

  5. Prostate Cancer Statistics • In 2013, the American Cancer Society estimates that: • 238,590 men will be diagnosed with prostate cancer • 29,720 men will die from prostate cancer

  6. Prostate Gland and Surrounding Area The walnut-sized prostate gland is located in front of the rectum, behind the penis, under the bladder.

  7. Prostate Cancer Risk Factors • Being a man - Only men develop prostate cancer. • Age - About 60% of prostate cancers are diagnosed in men aged 65 and older. • Race - African American and Jamaican men of African decent have the highest prostate cancer incidence rates in the world. • Family History - About 5 to 10% of prostate cancers may be inherited.

  8. American Cancer Society Testing Recommendations • At this time, there is insufficient data to recommend for or against routine testing. • Men who have at least a 10-year life expectancy should make an informed decision with their health care provider about whether to be screened for prostate cancer. • Potential benefits, risks and uncertainties associated with prostate cancer screening should be considered.

  9. When to Talk to Your Doctor • Age 50 for men who are at average risk and are expected to live at least 10 more years • Age 45 for men at high risk - this includes African American men with a family history of prostate cancer at an early age (younger than age 65) • Age 40 for men at even higher risk - those with several family members (father, brother, son) who had prostate cancer at an early age

  10. Symptoms • Early prostate cancer usually has no symptoms. • Those with advanced prostate cancer may experience: • Frequent, weak or painful urination • Difficulty starting urination or inability to urinate • Blood in urine • Loss of bladder or bowel control • Pain in spine, hips, ribs, or other bones • Weakness or numbness in legs or feet

  11. Testing Methods • Two tests are used to detect prostate cancer: • Digital rectal exam (DRE) – A test in which the doctor feels for abnormal areas by inserting a lubricated, gloved finger in the rectum. • Prostate-specific antigen (PSA) blood test – A test to detect a specific protein in the blood of men who have prostate cancer.

  12. Treatment Options • Treatment options vary depending on age and stage of cancer, but may include: • Surgery • Radiation or radioactive seed implants • Hormonal therapy • Chemotherapy

  13. Treatment Options • Careful observation is also an option. • For men who are older or have other health problems, there may not be a need for immediate treatment. • A patient and his doctor may decide treatment side effects outweigh the benefits.

  14. Survival Rates 93% of prostate cancers are discovered in the local stage • Localized cancer is cancer that, at the time of diagnosis, had not spread to additional sites within the body. • Almost 100% for 5-year localized cancer • 98% for all stages, 10-15 years after diagnosis

  15. Contact the American Cancer Society American Cancer Society programs and services are available 24 hours a day, 7 days a week. Visit cancer.org Call toll-free 1–800–227–2345